Back
 ACES  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2012
A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Temperature on Densities and Viscosities of Binary and Ternary Blends of Soybean Oil, Soy Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Oil
Abstract: The depletion of world petroleum reserves and the increased environmental concerns have stimulated the search for alternative sources for petroleum based fuel. The possibility of using vegetable oils as fuel has been recognized, however, due to its high viscosities and low volatilities makes it inefficient for most combustion engines and thus the need to get them chemically altered or transesterified to obtain fatty alkyl esters of the oil (biodiesel). In this study, binary and ternary blends of biodiesel were produced and the effect of temperature on their viscosity and density was investigated. Biodiesel was produced from soybean oil by transesterification of the oil with methanol using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst at a temperature of 60℃ in a batch reactor. Binary and ternary blends of the soy-biodiesel were prepared with soy bean oil and petroleum diesel fuel, respectively. Viscosities and densities of the binary and ternary blends were measured at different temperatures of 20℃ to 90℃ as to determine the effect of temperature on viscosities and densities of the blends. The properties of the soy-biodiesel produced were compared with ASTM standard and found to be within the limits. The results show that the viscosities and densities of both the binary and ternary blends are temperature dependent. The viscosities of binary and ternary blends decreased nonlinearly with temperature, while their densities decreased linearly with temperature. The variation of temperature with viscosity and density of the blends was correlated and the polynomial equation offered the best correlation between temperature and viscosity, while linear equation gave the best correlation between temperature and density. In conclusion, the efficiency of binary and ternary blends of biodiesel in combustion engines is dependent on the viscosity and density of the blends which are invariably temperature dependent.
Cite this paper: O. Aworanti, S. Agarry and A. Ajani, "A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Temperature on Densities and Viscosities of Binary and Ternary Blends of Soybean Oil, Soy Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Oil," Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 444-452. doi: 10.4236/aces.2012.24054.
References

[1]   H. Fukuda, A. Kando and H. Noda, “Biodiesel Fuel Production by Transesterification of Oils,” Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 92, No. 5, 2001, pp. 405-416.

[2]   C. L. Peterson, R. O. Cruz, L. Perkings, R. Korus and D. L. Auld, “Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel: A Progress Report,” ASAE Paper NO. PNWS90-610, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), St. Joseph, 1990.

[3]   Y. Z. Wang, T. Shemmeri, P. Earnes, J. McMullan, N. Hewitt and Y. Huang, “An Experimental Investigation of the Performance and Gaseous Exhaust Emission of a Diesel Engine Using Blends of a Vegetable Oil,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 14-15, 2006, pp. 1684-1691. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.11.013

[4]   A. C. Pinto, L. N. G. Lilian, J. C. R. Michelle, M. R. Nubia, A. T. Ednildo, A. L. Wilson, A. de P. P. Pedro and B. de A. Jailson, “Biodiesel: An Overview,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, Vol. 16, No. 6b, 2005, pp. 1313-1330. doi:10.1590/S0103-50532005000800003

[5]   O. J. Alamu, M. A. Waheed and S. O. Jekayinfa, “Alkali-Catalysed Laboratory Production and Testing of Biodiesel from Nigerian Palm Kernel Oil,” Agricultural International: CIGR Electonic Journal, Vol. IX, 2007, pp. 1-10.

[6]   S. C. A. de Almeida, C. R. Belchoir, M. V. G. Nascimento, L. dos S. R. Vieira and G. Fluery, “Performance of a Diesel Generator Fuelled with Palm Oil,” Fuel, Vol. 81, No. 16, 2000, pp. 2097-2102.

[7]   M. I. Zubir and S. Y. Chin, “Kinetics of Modified Zirconia-Catalyzed Heterogeneous Esterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production,” Journal of Applied Science, Vol. 10, No. 21, 2010, pp. 2584-2589. doi:10.3923/jas.2010.2584.2589

[8]   U. Schuchardt, R. Sercheli and R. M. Vargas, “Transesterification of Vegetable Oils: A Review,” Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1998, pp. 199-210. doi:10.1590/S0103-50531998000300002

[9]   B. K. Barnwal and M. P. Sharma, “Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils in India,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2005, pp. 363-378. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2004.05.007

[10]   L. Meher, S. Vidya and S. Naik, “Technical Aspects of Biodiesel Production by Transesterification—A Review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2006, pp. 248-268. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.002

[11]   A. R. Srivastava and R. Prasad, “Triglycerides-Based Diesel Fuels,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2000, pp. 111-133. doi:10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00013-1

[12]   U. Rashid and F. Anwar “Production of Biodiesel through Optimized Alkaline-Catalyzed Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil,” Fuel, Vol. 87, No. 3, 2008, pp. 265-273.

[13]   N. Jaya and K. Etihbrajulu, “Kinetic Modelling of Transesterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalyst,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2011, pp. 3463-3466.

[14]   Y. Shimada, H. Watanabe, A. Sugihara and Y. Tominaga, “Enzymatic Alcoholysis for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Application of the Reaction to Oil Processing,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzyme, Vol. 17, No. 3-5, 2002, pp. 133-142. doi:10.1016/S1381-1177(02)00020-6

[15]   Y. Zhang, M. A. Dube, D. D. Mclean and M. Kates, “Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil: 1. Process Design and Technological Assessment,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-16. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00040-3

[16]   D. Royon, M. Daz, G. Ellenrieder and S. Locatelli, “Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Cotton Seed Oil Using t-Butanol as a Solvent,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 98, No. 3, 2007, pp. 648-653. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2006.02.021

[17]   A. Demirbas, “Biodiesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils via Catalytic and Noncatalytic Supercritical Alcohol Transesterification and Other Methods: A Survey,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 44, No. 13, 2003, pp. 2093-2109. doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(02)00234-0

[18]   R. D. Abigor, P. O. Uadia,T. A. Foglia, M. J. Hasa, K. C. Jones, E. Okpefa, J. U. Obibuzor and M. E. Bafor, “Lipase Catalysed Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Some Nigerian Lauric Oils,” Biochemical Society Transactions, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2000, pp. 979-981. doi:10.1042/BST0280979

[19]   Y. Watanabe, Y. Shimada, A. Sugihara and Y. Tominaga, “Conversion of Degummed Soybean Oil to Biodiesel Fuel with Immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzyme, Vol. 17, No. 3-5, 2002, pp. 151-155. doi:10.1016/S1381-1177(02)00022-X

[20]   O. Kose, M. Tuter and H. A. Akosoy, “Immobilized Candida antarctica Lipase-Catalysed Alcoholysis of Cotton Seed Oil in a Solvent-Free Medium,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 83, No. 2, 2002, pp. 125-129. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00203-6

[21]   S. Dmytoyshyn, A. Dalai, S. Chandhari, H. Mishra and M. Reaney, “Synthesis and Characterization of Vegetable Oil Derived Esters: Evaluation for Their Diesel Additional Properties,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 92, No. 1, 2004, pp. 55-64. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2003.07.009,

[22]   S. E. Agarry, A. O. Ajani, O. A. Aworanti and B. O. Solomon, “Alkali Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Nigerian Citrus Seeds Oil,” Proceedings of the 40th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers, Harnessing and Optimizing Nigeria’s Energy Resources in the New Decade, Port Harcourt, 16-18 November 2010, pp. 145-155.

[23]   O. O. Fasina and Z. Colley, “Viscosity and Specific Heat of Vegetable Oils as a Function of Temperature: 35?C to 180?C,” International Journal of Food Properties, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2008, pp. 738-746. doi:10.1080/10942910701586273

[24]   M. Dak, R. C. Verma and M. K. Jain, “Mathematical Models for Prediction of Heological Parameters of Pineapple Juice,” International Journal Food Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1-17. doi:10.2202/1556-3758.1285

[25]   I. Stanciu, “A New Viscosity-Temperature Relationship for Vegetable Oil,” Journal of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, pp. 19-23.

[26]   J. Toth, Z. Simon, P. Medveczky, L. Gombos, B. Jelinek, L. Szilagyi, L. Graf and A. Malnasi-Csizmadia, “Site Directed Mutagenesis at Position 193 of Human Trypsin 4 Alters the Rate of Conformational Change during Activation: Role of Local Internal Viscosity in Protein Dynamics,” Structural Functional Genetics, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2004, pp. 1119-1127. doi:10.1002/prot.21398

[27]   C. Kapseu, G. J. Kayem, D. Balesdent and L. Schuffenecker, “Estimation of Dynamic Viscosities of Vegetable Oils,” Journal of American Oil Chemical Society, Vol. 68, No. 2, 1991, pp. 128-133. doi:10.1007/BF02662333

[28]   W. Lang, S. Sokhansanj and F. W. Sosulski, “Modelling the Temperature Dependence of Kinematic Viscosity for Refined Canola Oil,” Journal of American Oil Chemical Society, Vol. 69, No. 10, 1992, pp. 1054-1062. doi:10.1007/BF02541080

[29]   J. F. Toro-Vazquez and R. Infante-Guerrero, “Regressional Models That Describe oil Absolute Viscosity,” Journal of American Oil Chemical Society, Vol. 70, No. 11, 1993, pp. 1115-1122. doi:10.1007/BF02632152

[30]   M. Ahmad, S. Rashid, M. A. Khan, M. Zafar, S. Sultana and S. Gulzar, “Optimization of Base Catalysed Transesterification of Peanut Oil Biodiesel,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2009, pp. 441-446.

[31]   Z. J. Predojevic and B. D. Skrbic, “Alkali Catalysed Production of Biodiesel from Waste Frying Oil,” Journal of Serbian Chemical Society, Vol. 74, No. 8-9, 2009, pp. 993-1007. doi:10.2298/JSC0909993P

[32]   E. A. Ajav and O. A. Akingbehin, “A Study of Some Fuel Properties of Local Ethanol Blended with Diesel Fuel,” Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development, Vol. IV, 2002, pp. 1-9.

 
 
Top