EPE  Vol.2 No.3 , August 2010
Regional Coordination for under Frequency Load Shedding
Abstract: Frequency deviation can be used as an indicator of imbalance between supply and demand. When generation is insufficient, it can cause frequency decline in a power system operation. Implementing under frequency load shedding (UFLS) is one of the common methods to overcome this problem. This paper proposes a novel approach for adaptive load shedding. The concept is an extension of shared and targeted load shedding using reserve margin. The optimal system configuration is then selected from those candidates to fulfill operational objectives. Operational constraints related to system parameters, threshold frequency, total of load shed and control area including line capacity are considered. An example using four sub-areas connected to an external system shows that the proposed regional coordination as an adaptive UFLS is feasible.
Cite this paper: nullM. Anuar, H. Bevrani and T. Hiyama, "Regional Coordination for under Frequency Load Shedding," Energy and Power Engineering, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2010, pp. 148-153. doi: 10.4236/epe.2010.23022.

[1]   R. Baldick, B. Chowdhury, I. Dobson, Z. Dong, B. Gou, D. Hawkins, H. Huang, M. Joung, D. Kirschen, Li Fang- xing, Li Juan, Li Zuyi, Liu Chen-Ching, L. Mili, S. Miller, R. Podmore, K. Schneider, Kai Sun, D. Wang, Wu Zhigang, Pei Zhang, Wenjie Zhang and Xiaoping Zhang, “Initial review of methods for cascading failure analysis in electric power transmission systems,” IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Pittsburgh, USA, 20-24 July 2008, pp. 1-8.

[2]   Y. Liu and Y. Liu, “Aspects on Power System Islanding for Preventing Widespread Blackout,” Proceeding of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control, Ft. Lauderdale, 23-25 April 2006, pp. 1090-1095.

[3]   J. J. Ford, H. Bevrani and G. Ledwich, “Adaptive Load Shedding and Regional Protection,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2009, pp. 611-618.

[4]   H. Bevrani, G. Ledwich and J. J. Ford, “On the Use of df/dt in Power System Emergency Control,” Proceedings of IEEE Power Systems Conferences and Exposition, Seattle, 15-18 March 2009, pp. 1-6.

[5]   T. Tomsic, G. Verbic and F. Gubina, “Revision of the Underfrequency Load-Shedding Scheme of the Slovenian Power System,” Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 77, No. 5-6, 2007, pp. 494-500.

[6]   S.-J. Huang and C.-C. Huang, “Adaptive Load Shedding Method with Time-Based Design for Isolated Power Systems,” International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2000, pp. 51-58.

[7]   H. Bevrani, “Robust Power System Frequency Control,” Springer, USA, 2009.

[8]   M. A. Anuar, U. Dorji and T. Hiyama, “Principle Areas for Islanding Operation Based on Distribution Factor Matrix,” The 15th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Applications to Power Systems, Curitiba, 8-12 November 2009, pp. 1-6.

[9]   NERC, Assessments & Trends, Reliability Indicators, “ALR 1-3 Planning Reserve Margin”. http://www.nerc. com.

[10]   T. Hiyama, S. Koga and Y. Yoshimuta, “Fuzzy Logic Based Multi-Functional Load Frequency Control,” Proceedings of the IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Singapore, 23-27 January 2000, Vol. 2, pp. 921-926.

[11]   T. Hiyama and G. Okabe, “Coordinated load frequency control between LFC unit and small sized high power energy capacitor system,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Power System Technology, Singapore, 21-24 November 2004, pp. 1229-1233.

[12]   H. Bevrani, G. Ledwich, Z. Y. Dong and J. J. Ford, “Regional frequency response analysis under normal and emergency conditions,” Electric Power System Research, Vol. 79, No. 5, May 2009, pp. 837-845.