OJPsych  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2012
Alcohol dependence: Does the composition of the available beverages promote it?
ABSTRACT
Affordability and availability of alcohol are factors that have been associated with alcohol dependence. Ethanol content in the alcoholic beverages is an important determinant in alcohol dependence. Quality control of alcoholic beverages available in the market is important in safeguarding the health of alcohol consumers. Few studies in Kenya have determined the chemical composition of alcohol used by the study participants. Objective: To determine the chemical composition of alcoholic beverages used by a group of alcohol dependent study participants. Design: The study was a clinical trial with pre and post measurements. Method: The CIDI and WHO-ASSIST were administered to 188 alcohol-dependent persons at intake and after six months. A researcher-designed socio demographic questionnaire was also administered at intake. Alcohol beverages were randomly collected from the location of the study area and their chemical composition analyzed using gas chromatography. Results: The mean AUDIT score of the participant was 28.6 for male and 26.6 for females. Three of the alcohol samples collected was illicit brews collected while 11 were licit. Four out of the eleven licit brews had ethanol levels that did not complied with the set government standards. Conclusion: Illicit brews with high ethanol content are available in the Kenyan market, while some of the manufacturers of the licit brew do not comply with government set content recommendations.

Cite this paper
W. Kuria, M. and Olando, Y. (2012) Alcohol dependence: Does the composition of the available beverages promote it?. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 301-304. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24042.
References
[1]   Kimani, J. (2006) NACADA, calling stakeholders to contribute to develop an alcohol policy. info@nacada.go.ke

[2]   Kenya Gazette (2010). The alcoholic drinks control act. Kenya Gazette supplements No. 58 (Acts No. 4).

[3]   World Health Organization (2004) Global status report on alcohol. Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Geneva.

[4]   Nayak, M.B., Kerr, W., Greenfield, T.K. and Pillai, A. (2008) Alcohol not all drinks are created equal: Implications for alcohol assessment in India. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43, 713-718. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn074

[5]   Riley, L. and Marshal, M. (1999) Alcohol and public health in 8 developing countries. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[6]   Rehm, J., Rehn, N., Room, R., Monteiro, M., Gmel, G., Jernigan, D. and Frick U. (2003) The global distribution of average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking. European Addiction Research, 9, 147-156. doi:10.1159/000072221 PMid:12970583

[7]   Obot, I.S. (2006) Alcohol use and related problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Journal of drug and Alcohol Studies, 5, 17-26.

[8]   Nordwall, S.P. (2000) Homemade alcohol kills 121 in Kenya. USA Today Airlington. In: Bahor, et al., Eds., Alcohol: No ordinary commodity.3

[9]   Shaffer, D.N., Njeri, R., Justice, A.C., Odero, W.W. and Tierney, W.M. (2004) Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection in public clinics in western Kenya. East Africa medical Journal, 81, 594-598.

[10]   Odejide, A.O., Ohaeri, J.U., Adelekan, M.F. and Ikuesan, B.A. (1987) Drinking behavior and social change among youths in Nigeria: A study of two cities. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 20, 227-233. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(87)90032-9

[11]   Sawyer, K.M., Wechsberg, W.M. and Myers, B.J. (2006) Cultural similarities and differences between a sample of Black/African and colored women in South Africa: Convergence of risk related to substance use, sexual behavior and violence. Women Health, 43, 73-92. doi:10.1300/J013v43n02_05

[12]   Morojele, N.K., Kachieng’a, M.A., Mokoko, E., Nkoko, M.A., Parry, C.D. and Nkowane, A.M. (2006) Alcohol use and sexual behavior among risky drinkers and bar and shebeen patrons in Gauteng province, South Africa. Social Science and Medicine, 62, 217-227. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.05.031

[13]   Rocha-Silva, L. (2001) The nature and extent of drug use and the prevalence of related problems in South Africa: National Surveillance. Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria.

[14]   Rehm, J., Room, R. and Monteriro, M. (2004) Comparative quantification of health risks. Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. World Health Organization, Geneva, 959-1108.

 
 
Top