ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies among people living with HIV infection suggested that prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was high. In addition, among non-HIV infected patients, ethnic density influence the prevalence. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and effects of ethnic density on psychiatric morbidity among these patients in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among patients who had been diagnosed with HIV infection in a teaching hospital in Sokoto. Questionnaire relating to sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity were administered to the patients. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 while test for significance was set at P < 0.05. Result: The mean age of the patient was 32 ± 9 years (range = 12 - 63), male being older than the female. Of the patients, 71% were married while and about two third were of Islamic religion. Twenty seven percent had no formal education and were mainly Hausa/Fulani ethnicity. Seven percent of the patients had definite depression while 8% had definite anxiety. When the subjects were dichotomized to Hausa/Fulani and others, they were similar with regard to age and gender (X2 = 4.43; P = 0.49 and X2 = 0.22; P = 0.64 respectively). Across the ethnicity (Hausa/Fulani and others), the subjects differ significantly with regard to religion (X2 = 0.68; P = 0.00), marital status (X2 = 15.05; P = 0.00), education (X2 = 30.56; P = 0.00) and employment status (X2 = 9.81; P = 0.01). The Hausa/Fulani ethnic group had less psychiatric morbidity. In addition, marital status had significant pathoplastic effect on depression across ethnicity (X2 = 0.42; P = 0.02). Conclusion: Ethnic density was associated with decrease prevalence of common mental disorder among patients with HIV infection. Environmental manipulation may play a role in the management of this patient.
Cite this paper
A. Yunusa, M. and Obembe, A. (2012) Ethnic density and prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among patients with hiv infection in Sokoto, Nigeria—A control study. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 2, 292-300. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2012.24041.
 Bing, E.G., et al., (2001) Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 721-728. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.8.721
 Collins, P.Y., Holman, A.R., Freeman, M. and Patel, V. (2006) What is the relevance of mental health to HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in developing countries? A systematic review. AIDS, 20, 1571-1582.
 Ciesla, J.A. and Roberts, J.E. (2001) Meta analysis of the relationship between HIV infection and risk for depresssive disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 725-730. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.5.725
 Bing, E.G., Burnam, M.A., Longshore, D., Fleishman, J.A., Sherbourne, C.D., London, A.S., Turner, B.J., Eggan Ferd, M.A., Beckman, R., Vitiello, B., Morton Sally, C., Maria, O., Bozzette, S.A., Ortiz-Barron, L. and Shapiro, M. (2001) Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 721-728. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.8.721
 Maj, M., et al. (1994) WHO neuropsychiatric AIDS study, cross-sectional phase I. Study design and psychiatric findings. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 39-49.
 Evans, S., Ferrando, S., Sewell, M., Goggin, K., Fishman, B. and Rabkin, J. (1998) Pain and depression in HIV illness. Psychosomatics, 39, 528-535.
 Rabkin, J.G., Goetz, R.R., Remien, R.H., Williams, J.B., Todak, G. and Gorman, J.M. (1997) Stability of mood despite HIV illness progression in a group of homosexual men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1632-1633.
 Perkins, D.O., Stern, R.A., Golden, R.N., Murphy, C., Naftolowitz, D. and Evans, D.L. (1994) Mood Disorders in HIV Infection: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a Nonepicenter of the AIDS Epidemic. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 233.
 Adewuya, A.O., Afolabi, M.O., Ola, B.A., Ogundele, O.A., Ajibare, A.O. and Oladipo, B.F. (2007) Psychiatric disorders among the HIV-positive population in Nigeria: A control study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 63, 203-206. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.03.006
 Farinpour, R., et al. (2003) Psychosocial risk factors of HIV morbidity and mortality: Findings from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 654-670.
 Carrico, A.W., et al. (2011) Psychiatric risk factors for hiv disease progression: The role of inconsistent patterns of antiretroviral therapy utilization. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 56, 146-150.
 Leserman, J., et al. (1995) Progression to AIDS: The effects of stress, depressive symptoms, and social support. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 397-406.
 Ironson, G., et al. (2005) Psychosocial factors predict CD4 and viral load change in men and women with human immunodeficiency virus in the era of highly active antiretroviral treatment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 1013-1021. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000188569.58998.c8
 Rabkin, J.G. (1979) Ethnic density and psychiatric hospitalization: Hazards of minority status. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 136, 1562-1566.
 Shaw, R., et al. A review of the impact of ethnic density on adult mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, in Press.
 Halpern, D. and Nazroo, J. (2000) The ethnic density effect: Results from a national community survey of England and Wales. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 46, 34-46. doi:10.1177/002076400004600105
 Yunusa, M.A., Obembe, A., Ibrahim, M.T.O. and Njoku, C.H. (2011) Prevalence and specific psychosocial factors associated with substance use and psychiatric morbidity among patients with HIV infection at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto State, Nigeria. African Journals of Drugs and Alcohol Studies, 10, 11-16.
 Zigmond, A.S. and Snaith, R.P. (1983) The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361-370.
 Abiodun, O.A. (1994) A validity study of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in general hospital units and a community sample in Nigeria. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 669-672. doi:10.1192/bjp.165.5.669
 Fatoye, F.A., Mosaku, K.S., Komolafe, M. and Adewuya, A.O. (2006) Interictal anxiety and depression symptoms in Nigerians with epilepsy: A controlled study. Epilepsy & Behavior, 9, 312-316.
 Savard, J., Laberge, B., Gauthier, J.G. and Bergeron, M.G. (1999) screening clinical depression in HIV-seropositive patients using the hospital anxiety and depression scale. AIDS and Behavior, 3, 167-175.
 Grant, B.F., Stinson, F.S., Dawson, D.A., Chou, S.P., Du- four, M.C., Compton, W., Pickering, R.P. and Kaplan, K.B.S. (2004) Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 807-816. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.8.807
 Katherine, F.M.M. and Sylvia, F.K. (2010) Prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in HIV-positive outpatients in rural Tanzania. AIDS Care, 22, 415-419.
 Chandra, P.S., Ravi, V., Desai, A. and Subbakrishna, D.K. (1998) Anxiety and depression among hiv-infected heterosexuals—A report from India. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 45, 401-409.
 Kessler, R.C., Andrews, G., Colpe, L.J., Hiripi, E., Mroczek, D.K., Normand, S.L., Walters, E.E. and Zaslavsky, A.M. (2002) Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine, 32, 959-976.
 Bécares, L., Nazroo, J., Jackson, J. and Heuvelman, H., (2012) Ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism among Caribbean people in the US and England: A cross-national comparison. Social Science & Medicine, 30, 1-9.
 Pickett, K., Shaw, R., Atkin, K., Kiernan, K. and Wilkinson, R. (2009) Ethnic density effects on maternal and infant health in the Millennium Cohort Study. Social Science & Medicine, 69, 1476-1483.
 Morgan, C., Charalambides, M., Hutchinson, G. and Murray, R.M. (2010) Migration, ethnicity, and psychosis: Toward a sociodevelopmental model. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36, 655-664. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq051
 Odegaard, O. (1932) Emigration and insanity. Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 4, 1-206.
 Selten, J.P., Slaets, J.P. and Kahn, R.S. (1997) Schizophrenia in Surinamese and Dutch Antillean immigrants to the Netherlands: Evidence of an increased incidence. Psychological Medicine, 27, 807-811.