JEP  Vol.3 No.10 , October 2012
Navigating the Lead Laws/Rules/Standards for Renovation and Repair Activities: A Guide for Contractors and Laborers
Abstract: Children and adults are often exposed to lead in homes as a result of deteriorating lead-based paint surfaces and any disturbance to those surfaces. There are a number of laws, regulations, standards and guidance documents in place aimed at minimization of lead dust contamination following renovation and repair activities. These laws and regulations are oftentimes confusing and conflicting for the maintenance contractor who has limited time and resources for researching the right and appropriate course of action. This paper provides a comprehensive review and discussion of the lead laws, regulations, standards and guidelines for contractors.
Cite this paper: A. Ferguson and T. Rimmer, "Navigating the Lead Laws/Rules/Standards for Renovation and Repair Activities: A Guide for Contractors and Laborers," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 10, 2012, pp. 1318-1329. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.310150.

[1]   J. L. Pirkle, R. B. Kaufmann, D. J. Brody, T. Hickman, E. W. Gunter and D. C. Paschal, “Exposure of the US Popu- lation to Lead, 1991-1994,” Environmental Health Pers- pectives, Vol. 106, No. 11, 1998, pp. 745-750. doi:10.1289/ehp.98106745

[2]   CDC, “Lead,” 2011.

[3]   R. Levin, et al., “Lead Exposure in US Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 116, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1285-1293. doi:10.1289/ehp.11241

[4]   R. P. Maas, S. C. Patch, D. M. Morgan and T. J. Pandolfo, “Reducing Lead Exposure from Drinking Water: Recent History and Current State,” Public Health Reports, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2005, pp. 316-321.

[5]   CDC, “Healthy People 2020 Summary of Objectives for Environmental Health,” 2011.

[6]   S. Reynolds, R. Seem, L. Fourtes, N. Sprince, J. Johnson, L. Walkner, W. Clark and P. Whitten, “Prevalence of Elevated Blood Leads and Exposure to Lead in Con- struction Trades in Iowa and Illinois,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 2, 1999, pp. 307-316. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199908)36:2<307::AID-AJIM10>3.3.CO;2-M

[7]   D. C. Bellinger, “Lead Neurotoxicity in Children: Decom- posing the Variability in Dose-Effect Relationships,” Ame- rican Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 50, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1-9.

[8]   J. M. Braun, R. S. Kahn, T. Froehlich, P. Auinger and B. P. Lanphear, “Exposures to Environmental Toxicants and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in US Children,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 114, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1904-1909. doi:10.1289/ehp.9478

[9]   M. L. Miranda, D. Kim, J. Reiter, M. A. Overstreet-Galea- no and P. Maxson, “Environmental Contributors to the Achievement Gap,” NeuroToxicology, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1019-1024. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.07.012

[10]   D. C. Bellinger, “Lead Neurotoxicity and Socioeconomic Status: Conceptual and Analytical Issues,” Neuro-Toxi- cology, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2008, pp. 828-832. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2008.04.005

[11]   S. G. Gilbert and B. Weiss, “A Rationale for Lowering the Blood Lead Action Level from 10 to 2ug/dL,” NeuroToxicology, Vol. 27, No. 2006, 2006, pp. 693-701.

[12]   N. C. G. Freeman, “Children’s Risk Assessment,” In: M. Robson and W. Toscano, Risk Assessment for Environmental Health, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., San Francisco, 2007, pp. 315-344. doi:10.1002/pd.1685

[13]   M. A. Pokras, and M. R. Kneeland, “Lead Poisoning: Using Transdisciplinanry Approaches to Solve an Ancient Problem,” EcoHealth, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2008, pp. 379- 385. doi:10.1007/s10393-008-0177-x

[14]   J. O. Nriagu, “Occupational Exposure to Lead in Ancient Times,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1983, pp. 105-116. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(83)90063-3

[15]   FDA, “Lead Based Paint Poisoning Prevention,” Title 42- Chapter 63, 1971.

[16]   CPSC, “CPSC Announces Final Ban on Lead-Containing Paint (Release #77-096),” 1977.

[17]   “Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008,” 110th Congress, Public Law 110-314, 2008.

[18]   “Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992,” 102nd Congress, Title X, 1992.

[19]   EPA, “Lead; Identification of Dangerous Levels of Lead,” 40 CFR Part 745, 2001.

[20]   EPA, “Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Us- ing Leaded Aviation Gasoline,” EPA-HQ-OAR-2007- 0294, 2010.

[21]   EPA, “Lead Air Quality Standards,” 40 CFR Part 50. 1971, 1-14-2010.

[22]   EPA, “Reducing Toxic Emissions from Power Plants,” 2011.

[23]   EPA, “Lead and Copper Rule,” 40 CFR Part 141, 1991.

[24]   EPA, “Commonly Asked Questions: Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the NSF Standard,” 2011.

[25]   EPA, “Corrosion, Scaling, and Metal Mobility Research,” 2011.

[26]   CDC, “Blood Lead Levels in Children,” 2012.

[27]   B. S. Schwartz and H. Hu, “Adult Lead Exposure: Time for Change,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, No. 3, 2007, pp. 451-454. doi:10.1289/ehp.9782

[28]   Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics, “Medical Management Guidelines for Lead-Exposed Adults,” 2011.

[29]   M. Ottlinger, R. Zumwalde, R. Roscoe, M. Kosnett, K. Hipkins, R. Meister and B. Materna, “Adult Blood Lead Testing: A Pivotal Role for Labs in Interpretation and Surveillance,” Clinical Laboratory News, Circle No. 165, 2002, pp. 13-15.

[30]   CDC, “Children with Elevated Blood Lead Levels Related to Home Renovations, Repair, and Painting Activities-New York State, 2006-2007,” MMWR Morbidity and Mortality, Vol. 58, No. 3, 2009, pp. 55-58.

[31]   J. M. Gaitens, S. L. Dixon, D. E. Jacobs, J. Nagaraja, W. Strauss, J. Wilson and P. J. Ashley, “Exposure of US Children to Residential Dust Lead, 1999-2004: I. Housing and Demographic Factors,” Environmental Health Perspective, Vol. 117, No. 3, 2009, pp. 461-467.

[32]   EPA, “Renovation, Repair and Painting (RRP),” 40 CFR Part 745, Subpart E, 2010.

[33]   A. Alert, “EPA Issues Proposed Changes to RRP as a Result of Settlement,” Alliance Alert Monthly Electronic Newsletter, Vol. 9, No. 9, 2009, pp. 1-7.

[34]   EPA, “Training Courses,” 2011.

[35]   EPA, “Lead; Requirements for Hazard Education before Renovation of Target Housing; Final Rule,” 40 CFR Part 745, 1998.

[36]   EPA, “TSCA Section 402/404 Lead-Based Paint Renovation Program: 40 CFR Part 745 Subpart E: Residential Property Renovation State, Territorial and Tribal Program Authorization Application Guidance,” 2011.

[37]   EPA, “Lead Abatement Professional,” 2011.

[38]   EPA, “Lead In the News,” 2011.

[39]   Department of Housing and Urban Development, “HUD Lead Safe Housing Rule, 24 CFR 35, subparts B through R,” Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2004.

[40]   DOE, “Weatherization Assistance for Low Income Persons,” 2011.

[41]   DOE, “Interim Lead-Safe Weatherization (LSW) Guid- ance: Weatherization Program Notice 08-6,” WPN 08-6, 2008.

[42]   DOE, “Weatherization Health and Safety Notice: Weatherization Program Notice 11-6,” WPN 11-6, 2011.

[43]   Montana Weatherization Center, “Lead-Safe Weatherization (LSW) Benchmark Curriculum Revised 2008,” 2011.

[44]   “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009,” 111th Congress, Title V111, 2009.

[45]   DOL, “Lead,” 2011.

[46]   NIOSH, “Preventing Lead Poisoning in Construction Workers,” DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 91-116a, 1997.

[47]   NIOSH, “NIOSH’s Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards,” DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2005-149, 2005.

[48]   A. Sussell, C. Hart, D. Wild and K. Ashley, “An Evaluation of Worker Lead Exposures and Cleaning Effectiveness during Removal of Deteriorated Lead-Based Paint,” Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1999, pp. 177-185.doi:10.1080/104732299303142

[49]   L. Yiin, S. Lu, S. Sannoh, B. Lim and G. Rhoads, “Eva- luation of Cleaning Methods Applied in Home Environments after Renovation and Remodeling Activities,” Environmental Research, Vol. 96, No. 2, 2004, pp. 156-162.doi:10.1016/j.envres.2004.01.007

[50]   EPA, “Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices and Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Disposal of Residential Lead-Based Paint Waste; Final Rule,” 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258, 2003.

[51]   “Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA),” 96th Congress, 40 CFR Parts 260-299, 1976.

[52]   “Hazardous and Solid Wastes Amendments of 1984,” 98th Congress, P.L. 98-616, 98 Stat. 3224, 1984.

[53]   A. Yassin, J. Martonik and J. Davidson, “Blood Lead Levels in US Workers,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 7, 2004, pp. 720-728. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000131789.37592.d1

[54]   F. Rabito, S. Perry, O. Salinas, J. Hembling, N. Schmidt, J. Parsons and P. Kissinger, “A Longitudinal Assessment of Occupation, Respiratory Symptoms, and Blood Lead Levels Among Latino Day Laborers in a Non-Agricultural Setting,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 5, 2011, pp. 366-374. doi:10.1002/ajim.20919

[55]   B. Materna, D. Harrington, P. Scholz, S. Payne, H. Stubbs, K. Hipkins, E. Merideth, L. Kirsch, G. Lomax, P. Coyle and C. Utratsu, “Results of an Intervention to Improve Lead Safety among Painting Contractors and Their Employees,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2002, pp. 119-130. doi:10.1002/ajim.10034

[56]   Weatherization Assistance Program Technical Assistance Program, “FAQs-Lead Safe Weatherization,” 2011.

[57]   G. Reames, S. Brumis and M. Nicas, “Task-Specific Lead Exposure during Residential Lead Hazard Reduction Projects,” Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 16, No. 6, 2001, pp. 671-678. doi:10.1080/10473220118123

[58]   M. Goldberg, N. Clark, S. Levin, N. Zuckerman and J. Doucette, “An Assessment of Lead Controls for Torch Cutting and Rivet Removal on Steel Structures,” Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 15, No. 5, 2000, pp. 445-452. doi:10.1080/104732200301403

[59]   P. cholz, B. Materna, D. Harrington and C. Utratsu, “Residential and Commercial Painters’ Exposure to Lead during the Surface Preparation,” AIHA Journal, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2002, pp. 22-28. doi:10.1080/15428110208984687

[60]   H. Mason, F. Gallagher and D. Sen, “Window Reno- vation and Exposure to Lead-an Observational Study,” Occupational Medicine, Vol. 55, No. 8, 2005, pp. 631- 634. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqi159