OJMS  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2012
Effect of Salinity on Growth of Mussels, Mytilus edulis, with Special Reference to Great Belt (Denmark)
ABSTRACT
The effects of salinities between 10 and 30 psu on the growth of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were studied in laboratory feeding experiments and compared to the growth of mussels suspended in net-bags in the brackish water Great Belt, Denmark. In the laboratory, 3 series of growth experiments were conducted: in Series #1, groups of mussels were exposed to 10, 15, 25 and 30 psu, in Series #2, two groups of mussels were exposed to 10 and 30 psu, respectively, for 15 days (first period) where upon the mussels were exposed to the reversed salinities for another 15 days (second period). In Series #3, two groups of mussels were initially exposed to 15 and 25 psu for 22 days whereupon the mussel groups were exposed to the reversed salinities for another 17 days. In the laboratory experiments there was a tendency towards reduced growth with decreasing salinity, reflected as reduced shell growth rate and decreasing weight specific growth rate with falling salinity. The shell growth rate was relatively low in the first feeding period compared to the second period, and mussels that were initially exposed to 10 psu, where the growth was low, exhibited fast growth when subsequently exposed to 30 psu, and reversed when 30 psu mussels were exposed to 10 psu. The study showed that mussels are able to adjust growth at changing salinities, and the observed effect of salinity could partly be explained by a temporary shell valve closure after a sudden change in salinity. The specific growth rate of mussels measured in laboratory experiments at salinities between 15 to 25 psu (4.2% to 4.8% d–1) were comparable to the growth of mussels in the field experiment (3.2% to 4.0% d–1) where the salinity varied between 24 and 13 psu during the growth period.

Cite this paper
H. Riisgård, L. Bøttiger and D. Pleissner, "Effect of Salinity on Growth of Mussels, Mytilus edulis, with Special Reference to Great Belt (Denmark)," Open Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 167-176. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2012.24020.
References
[1]   B. B?hle, “Effects of Adaptation to Reduced Salinity on filtration Activity and Growth of Mussels (Mytilusedulis L.),” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1972, pp. 41-47. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(72)90091-3

[2]   B. F. Theisen, “Allozyme Clines and Evidence of Strong Selection in Three Loci in Mytilusedulis L. (Bivalva) from Danish Waters,” Ophelia, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1978, pp. 135-142. doi:10.1080/00785326.1978.10425477

[3]   J. Davenport, “The Isolation Response of Mussels (Myti-lusedulis L.) Exposed to Falling Seawater Concentrations,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Vol. 59, No. 1, 1979, pp. 123-132. doi:10.1017/S0025315400046221

[4]   J. Davenport, “Is Mytilus edulis a Short Term Osmoregulator?” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 64A, No. 1, 1979, pp. 91-95. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(79)90436-5

[5]   P. C. Almada-Villela, “The Effects of Reduced Salinity on the Shell Growth of Small Mytilus edulis,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1984, pp. 71-182. doi:10.1017/S0025315400059713

[6]   L. L. Gruffydd, D. R. Huxley and D. J. Crisp, “The Reduction in Growth of Mytilus edulis in Fluctuating Salinity Regimes Measured Using Laser Diffraction Patterns and the Exaggeration of This Effect by Using Tap Water as the Diluting Medium,” Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1984, pp. 401-409. doi:10.1017/S0025315400030071

[7]   N. Kautsky, K. Johannesson and M. Tedengren, “Geno-typic and Phenotypic Differences between Baltic and North Sea Populations of Mytilus edulis Evaluated through Reciprocal Transplantations. I. Growth and Morphology,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 59, 1990, pp. 203-210. doi:10.3354/meps059203

[8]   M. Westerbom, M. Kilpi and O. Mustonen, “Blue Mussels, Mytilusedulis, at the Edge of the Range: Population Structure, Growth and Biomass along a Salinity Gradient in the North-Eastern Baltic Sea,” Marine Biology, Vol. 140, No. 5, 2002, pp. 991-999. doi:10.1007/s00227-001-0765-6

[9]   J.-W. Qiu, R. Tremblay and E. Bourget, “Ontogenetic Changes in Hyposaline Tolerance in the Mussels Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus: Implications for Distribution,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 228, 2002, pp. 143-152. doi:10.3354/meps228143

[10]   N. Kautsky, “Growth and Size Structure in a Baltic Mytilus edulis Population,” Marine Biology, Vol. 68, No. 2, 1982, pp. 117-133. doi:10.1007/BF00397599

[11]   M. Tedengren and N. Kautsky, “Comparative Study of the Physiology and Its Probable Effect on Size in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from the North Sea and the Northern Baltic Proper,” Ophelia, Vol. 25, No. 3, 1986, pp. 147-155. doi:10.1080/00785326.1986.10429746

[12]   I. Vuorinen, A. E. Antsulevich and N. V. Maximovich, “Spatial Distribution and Growth of the Common Mussel Mytilus edulis L. in the Archipelago of SW-Finland, Northern Baltic Sea,” Boreal Environment Research, Vol. 7, 2002, pp. 41-52.

[13]   P. J. Dare and D. B. Edwards, “Seasonal Changes in Flesh Weight and Biochemical Composition of Mussels (Mytilusedulis L.) in Conwy Estuary, North Wales,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1975, pp. 89-97. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(75)90066-0

[14]   C. Hiebenthal, E. E. Philipp, A. Eisenhauer and M. Wahl, “Interactive Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Shell Formation and General Condition in Baltic Sea Mytilus edulis and Arctica islandica,” Aquatic Biology, Vol. 14, 2012, pp. 289-298. doi:10.3354/ab00405

[15]   S. E. Shumway and P. A. Gabbot, “The Effect of Fluctuating Salinity on the Concentrations of Free Amino Acids and Ninhydrin-Positive Substances in the Adductor Muscles of Eight Species of Bivalve Molluscs,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biologyand Ecology, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1977, pp. 131-150. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(77)90044-2

[16]   C. J. Costa and A. W. Pritchard, “The Response of Mytilus edulis to Short Duration Hypoosmotic Stress,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol. 61A, No. 1, 1978, pp. 149-155. doi:10.1016/0300-9629(78)90292-X

[17]   I. D. Marsden, “Effects of Reduced Salinity and Seston Availability on Growth of the New Zealand Little-Neck Clam Austrovenus stutchburi,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 266, 2004, pp. 157-171. doi:10.3354/meps266157

[18]   G. Kullenberg and T. S. Jacobsen, “The Baltic Sea: An Outline of Its Physical Oceanography,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 6, 1981, pp. 183-186. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(81)90168-5

[19]   J. S. M?ller, “Water Masses, Stratification and Circulation,” In: B. B. J?rgensen and K. Richardson, Eds., Eutrophication in Coastal Marine Ecosystems, Amercian Geophysical Union, Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol. 52, 1996, pp. 51-66.

[20]   Fyn County, “Aquatic Environment of Fyn, Denmark, 1976-2000. Streams and Lakes, Coastal Waters, Ground-water, Environmental Impact of Wastewater and Agriculture,” Fyn County, Odense, 2001.

[21]   C. Jürgensen, “Modelling of Nutrient Release from Sediment in a Tidal Inlet, Kertinge Nor, Funen, Denmark,” Ophelia, Vol. 42, No. 1, 1995, pp. 163-178. doi:10.1080/00785326.1995.10431502

[22]   J. Bendtsen, K. E. Gustafsson, J. S?derkvist and J. L. S. Hansen, “Ventilation of Bottom Water in the North Sea-Baltic Sea Transition Zone,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 75, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 138-149. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.08.006

[23]   H. U. Riisg?rd, “Filtration Rate in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758: Dependence on Algal Concentration,” Journal of Shellfish Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, 1991, pp. 29-35.

[24]   H. U. Riisg?rd, “On Measurement of Filtration Rate in Bivalves—The Stony Road to Reliable Data, Review and Interpretation,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 211, 2001, pp. 275-291. doi:10.3354/meps211275

[25]   H. U. Riisg?rd, J. Lassen and C. Kittner, “Valve-Gape Response Times in Mussels (Mytilusedulis)—Effects of Laboratory Preceding-Feeding Conditions and in Situ Tidally Induced Variation in Phytoplankton Biomass,” Journal of Shellfish Research, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2006, pp. 901-913.

[26]   H. U. Riisg?rd, P. P. Egede and I. B. Saavedra, “Feeding Behaviour of the Mussel Mytilus edulis: New Observations, with a Minireview of Current Knowledge,” Journal of Marine Biology, 2011, Article ID: 312459. doi:10.1155/2011/312459

[27]   P. S. Larsen and H. U. Riisg?rd, “Validation of the Flow-Through (FTC) and Steady-State (SS) Methods for Clearance Rate Measurements in Bivalves,” Biology Open, 2011,

[28]   B. B. J?rgensen, “Seasonal Oxygen Depletion in the Bottom Waters of a Danish Fjord and Its Effect on the Benthic Community,” Oikos, Vol. 34, 1980, pp. 68-76. doi:10.2307/3544551

[29]   P. Wiles, L. A. van Duren, C. H?se, J. Larsen and J. H. Simpson, “Stratification and Mixing in the Limfjorden in Relation to Mussel Culture,” Journal of Marine Systems, Vol. 60, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 129-143. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.009

[30]   M. Tedengren, C. André, K. Johannesson and N. Kautsky, “Genotypic and Phenotypic Differences between Baltic and North Sea Populations of Mytilus edulis Evaluated through Reciprocal Transplantations. III. Physiology,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 59, 1990, pp. 221- 227. doi:10.3354/meps059221

[31]   K. Johannesson, N. Kautsky and M. Tedengren, “Geno-typic and Phenotypic Differences between Baltic and North Sea Populations of Mytilus edulis Evaluated through Reciprocal Transplantations. II. Genetic Variation,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 59, 1990, pp. 211-219. doi:10.3354/meps059211

[32]   I. Clausen and H. U. Riisg?rd, “Growth, Filtration and Respiration in the Mussel Mytilus edulis: No Regulation of the Filter-Pump to Nutritional Needs,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 141, 1996, pp. 37-45. doi:10.3354/meps141037

[33]   H. U. Riisgrd, K. Lundgreen and P. S. Larsen, “A Preliminary Evaluation of Potential for Line-Mussel Production in the Great Belt (Denmark) Based on Actual Growth of Young Mussels Mytilus edulis,” 2012, Submitted.

[34]   W. B. Stickle and T. D. Sabourin, “Effects of Salinity on the Respiration and Heart Rate of the Common Mussel, Mytilus edulis L., and the Black Chiton, Katherina tunica (Wood),” Journal of Experimental Marine Biologyand Ecology, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1979, pp. 257-268. doi:10.1016/0022-0981(79)90135-7

[35]   S. Sadok, R. F. Uglow and S. J. Haswell, “Haemolymph and Mantle Fluid Ammonia and Ninhydrin Positive Substances Variations in Salinity-Challenged Mussels (Myti-lusedulis L.),” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology-and Ecology, Vol. 211, No. 2, 1997, pp. 195-212. doi:10.1016/S0022-0981(96)02732-3

 
 
Top