A Process Study of the Tidal Circulation in the Persian Gulf

Affiliation(s)

LOCEAN/IPSL, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

LPO/IUEM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France.

DYNECO, IFREMER, Brest, France.

LOCEAN/IPSL, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

LPO/IUEM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France.

DYNECO, IFREMER, Brest, France.

ABSTRACT

A homogeneous shallow-water model with free surface is used to model the tidal circulation in the Persian Gulf. The numerical finite-difference model includes harmonic diffusion of horizontal momentum and quadratic bottom friction, it has a 9 km mesh size and it is forced by 7 tidal components at its southern boundary. High precision bathymetric data are used to obtain the bottom topography. The numerical model is run for more than a year. The results are the following: 1) The model accurately reproduces the tidal phase and amplitude observed at 42 tidal gauges in the region. This accuracy is attributed to the presence of the 7 components which are able to interact nonlinearly; 2) The amphidromic points are also well positioned by the model due to a proper choice of bathymetry. This was checked also with a simpler geometry of the domain; 3) The tidal currents can be strong in the Straits of Hormuz and in shallow areas; thus they will have an effect of the hydrology of the region. The residual currents are weak so that they will be negligible for the large-scale circulation on long periods; 4) Finally, the sea-surface elevation forecast by the model is in close agreement with in-situ measurements of pressure in the Straits, performed during the GOGP99 experiment.

A homogeneous shallow-water model with free surface is used to model the tidal circulation in the Persian Gulf. The numerical finite-difference model includes harmonic diffusion of horizontal momentum and quadratic bottom friction, it has a 9 km mesh size and it is forced by 7 tidal components at its southern boundary. High precision bathymetric data are used to obtain the bottom topography. The numerical model is run for more than a year. The results are the following: 1) The model accurately reproduces the tidal phase and amplitude observed at 42 tidal gauges in the region. This accuracy is attributed to the presence of the 7 components which are able to interact nonlinearly; 2) The amphidromic points are also well positioned by the model due to a proper choice of bathymetry. This was checked also with a simpler geometry of the domain; 3) The tidal currents can be strong in the Straits of Hormuz and in shallow areas; thus they will have an effect of the hydrology of the region. The residual currents are weak so that they will be negligible for the large-scale circulation on long periods; 4) Finally, the sea-surface elevation forecast by the model is in close agreement with in-situ measurements of pressure in the Straits, performed during the GOGP99 experiment.

Cite this paper

S. Pous, X. Carton and P. Lazure, "A Process Study of the Tidal Circulation in the Persian Gulf,"*Open Journal of Marine Science*, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 131-140. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2012.24016.

S. Pous, X. Carton and P. Lazure, "A Process Study of the Tidal Circulation in the Persian Gulf,"

References

[1] A. Defant, “Physical Oceanography,” Pergamon Press, Vol. 2, 1960.

[2] K. T. Bogdanov, “Propagation des Ondes de Marees et des Variations de Marees du Niveau du Golfe Persique,” Marees Terrestres, Vol. 101, 1988, pp. 7004-7009

[3] L. Von Trepka, “Investigations of the Tides in the Persian Gulf by Means of a Hydrodynamical Numerical Model,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Mathematical Hydro-dynamical Investigations of the Physical Processes in the Sea, Institut fur Meereskunde der Universitat Hamburg, Vol. 10, 1968, pp. 59-63.

[4] D. J. Evans-Roberts, “Tides in the Persian Gulf,” Consulting Engineer, Vol. 43, No. 6, 1979, pp. 46-48.

[5] R. W. Lardner, M. S. Belen and H. M. Cekirge, “Finite Difference Model for Tidal Flows in the Arabian Gulf,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 8, 6, 1982, 425-444.

[6] L. Kantha, “Tides—A Modern Perspective,” Marine Geodesy, 21, 4, 1998, pp. 275-297.

[7] R. Proctor, R. A. Flather and A. J. Elliott, “Modeling Tides and Surface Drift in the Arabian Gulf: Application to the Gulf Oil Spill,” Continental Shelf Research, 14, 5, 1994, pp. 531-545.

[8] S. Pous, “Dynamique Oceanique dans les Golfes Persique et d’Oman”, PhD Thesis, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, 2005, 365 p.

[9] P. Lazure and F. Dumas, “An External-Internal Mode Coupling for a 3D Hydrodynamical Model for Applications at Regional Scale (MARS),” Advances in Water Resources, 31, 2, 2007, pp. 233-250. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2007.06.010

[10] P. Pontius, L. Kantha, V. Anantharaj and T. J. Bennett, “Tidal Modeling in Marginal and Semi-Enclosed Seas,” Proceedings of the MTS 94 Conference, Challenges and Opportunities in the Marine Environment, Washington, 7-9 September 1994, pp. 770-776.

[11] P. C. Roos and H. M. Schuttelaars, “Influence of Topography on Tide Propagation and Amplification in Semi-Enclosed Basins,” Ocean Dynamics, 61, 1, 2011, pp. 21-38.

[12] V. C. John, “Harmonic Tidal Current Constituents of the Western Arabian Gulf from Moored Current Measurements,” Coastal Engineering, 17, 1992, pp. 145-151. doi:10.1016/0378-3839(92)90016-N

[13] C. A. Blain, “Barotropic Tidal and Residual Circulation in the Arabian Gulf,” In: M. L. Spaulding and H. L. Butler Eds., Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1998, pp. 166-180.

[14] S. Pous, X. Carton and P. Lazure, “Hydrology and Circulation in the Straits of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman; Results from the GOGP99 Experiment. I. Straits of Hormuz,” Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C12037, 2004, pp. 1-15.

[15] S. Pous, X. Carton and P. Lazure, “Hydrology and Circulation in the Straits of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman; Results from the GOGP99 Experiment. II. Gulf of Oman”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C12038, 2004, pp.1-26.

[1] A. Defant, “Physical Oceanography,” Pergamon Press, Vol. 2, 1960.

[2] K. T. Bogdanov, “Propagation des Ondes de Marees et des Variations de Marees du Niveau du Golfe Persique,” Marees Terrestres, Vol. 101, 1988, pp. 7004-7009

[3] L. Von Trepka, “Investigations of the Tides in the Persian Gulf by Means of a Hydrodynamical Numerical Model,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Mathematical Hydro-dynamical Investigations of the Physical Processes in the Sea, Institut fur Meereskunde der Universitat Hamburg, Vol. 10, 1968, pp. 59-63.

[4] D. J. Evans-Roberts, “Tides in the Persian Gulf,” Consulting Engineer, Vol. 43, No. 6, 1979, pp. 46-48.

[5] R. W. Lardner, M. S. Belen and H. M. Cekirge, “Finite Difference Model for Tidal Flows in the Arabian Gulf,” Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 8, 6, 1982, 425-444.

[6] L. Kantha, “Tides—A Modern Perspective,” Marine Geodesy, 21, 4, 1998, pp. 275-297.

[7] R. Proctor, R. A. Flather and A. J. Elliott, “Modeling Tides and Surface Drift in the Arabian Gulf: Application to the Gulf Oil Spill,” Continental Shelf Research, 14, 5, 1994, pp. 531-545.

[8] S. Pous, “Dynamique Oceanique dans les Golfes Persique et d’Oman”, PhD Thesis, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, 2005, 365 p.

[9] P. Lazure and F. Dumas, “An External-Internal Mode Coupling for a 3D Hydrodynamical Model for Applications at Regional Scale (MARS),” Advances in Water Resources, 31, 2, 2007, pp. 233-250. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2007.06.010

[10] P. Pontius, L. Kantha, V. Anantharaj and T. J. Bennett, “Tidal Modeling in Marginal and Semi-Enclosed Seas,” Proceedings of the MTS 94 Conference, Challenges and Opportunities in the Marine Environment, Washington, 7-9 September 1994, pp. 770-776.

[11] P. C. Roos and H. M. Schuttelaars, “Influence of Topography on Tide Propagation and Amplification in Semi-Enclosed Basins,” Ocean Dynamics, 61, 1, 2011, pp. 21-38.

[12] V. C. John, “Harmonic Tidal Current Constituents of the Western Arabian Gulf from Moored Current Measurements,” Coastal Engineering, 17, 1992, pp. 145-151. doi:10.1016/0378-3839(92)90016-N

[13] C. A. Blain, “Barotropic Tidal and Residual Circulation in the Arabian Gulf,” In: M. L. Spaulding and H. L. Butler Eds., Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling, American Society of Civil Engineers, 1998, pp. 166-180.

[14] S. Pous, X. Carton and P. Lazure, “Hydrology and Circulation in the Straits of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman; Results from the GOGP99 Experiment. I. Straits of Hormuz,” Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C12037, 2004, pp. 1-15.

[15] S. Pous, X. Carton and P. Lazure, “Hydrology and Circulation in the Straits of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman; Results from the GOGP99 Experiment. II. Gulf of Oman”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, C12038, 2004, pp.1-26.