OJMS  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2012
Application of Multivariate Geostatistics to Investigate the Surface Sediment Distribution of the High-Energy and Shallow Sandy Spiekeroog Shelf at the German Bight, Southern North Sea
ABSTRACT
Surface sediment data acquired by the grab sampling technique were used in the present study to produce a high-resolution and full coverage surface grain-size mapping. The objective is to test whether the hypothetically natural relationship between the surface sediment distribution and complex bathymetry could be used to improve the quality of surface sediment patches mapping. This is based on our hypothesis that grain-size characteristics of the ridge surface sediments must be intrinsically related to the hydrodynamic condition, i.e. storm-induced currents and the geometry of the seabed morphology. The median grain-size data were obtained from grab samples with inclusive bathymetric point recorded at 713 locations on the high-energy and shallow shelf of the Spiekeroog Barrier Island at the German Bight of the Southern North Sea. The area features two-parallel shoreface-connected ridges which is situated obliquely WNW-SSE oriented and mostly sandy in texture. We made use the median grain-size (d50) as the predictand and the bathymetry as the covariable to produce a high-resolution raster map of median grain-size distribution using the Cokriging interpolation. From the cross-validation of the estimated median grain-size data with the measured ones, it is clear that the gradient of the linear regression line for Cokriging is leaning closer towards the theoretical perfect-correlation line (45°) compared to that for Anisotropy Kriging. The interpolation result with Cokriging shows more realistic estimates on the unknown points of the median grain-size and gave detail to surface sediment patchiness, which spatial scale is more or less in agreement with previous studies. In addition to the moderate correlation obtained from the Pearson correlation (r = 0.44), the cross-variogram shows a more precise nature of their spatial correlation, which is physically meaningful for the interpolation process. The present study partially contributes to the framework of habitat mapping and nature protection that is to fill the gaps in physical information in a high-energetic and shallow coastal shelf.

Cite this paper
E. Meilianda, K. Huhn, D. Alfian and A. Bartholomae, "Application of Multivariate Geostatistics to Investigate the Surface Sediment Distribution of the High-Energy and Shallow Sandy Spiekeroog Shelf at the German Bight, Southern North Sea," Open Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 103-118. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2012.24014.
References
[1]   V. E. Kostylev, “Benthic Habitat Mapping from Seabed Acoustic Surveys: Do Implicit Assumptions Hold?” In: M. Z. Li, C. R. Sherwood and P. R. Hill, Eds, Sediments, Morphology and Sedimentary Processes on Continental Shelves, International Association of Sedimentologists Special Publication, 44(IAS), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2011.

[2]   C. H. Moore, E. S. Harvey and K. P. van Niel, “Spatial Prediction of Demersal Fish Distributions: Enhancing Our Understanding of Species-Environment Relationships,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 66, 2009, pp. 2068-2075. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsp205

[3]   J. R. Ellis, S. I. Rogers and S. M. Freeman, “Demersal Assemblages in the Irish Sea, St George’s Channel and Bristol Channel,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 51, 2000, pp. 299-315. doi:10.1006/ecss.2000.0677

[4]   R. A. McConnaughey and K. R. Smith, “Associations between Flatfish Abundance and Surface Sediments in the Eastern Bering Sea,” Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 57, No. 12, 2000, pp. 2410- 2419. doi:10.1139/f00-219

[5]   J. Kooij, van der S. Kupschus and B. E. Scott, “Delineating the Habitat of Demersal Fish Assemblages with Acoustic Seabed Technologies,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 68, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1973-1985. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsr124

[6]   E. Verfaillie, V. V. Lancker and M. V. Meirvenne, “Multivariate Geostatistics for the Predictive Modelling of the Surface Sand Distribution in Shelf Seas,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 26, 2006, pp. 2454-2468. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2006.07.028

[7]   A. J. Kenny, I. Cato, M. Desprez, Fader, R. T. E. Schüttenhelm and J. Side, “An Overview of Seabed-Mapping Technologies in the Context of Marine Habitat Classification,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2003, pp. 411-418. doi:10.1016/S1054-3139(03)00006-7

[8]   J. D. Sisson, J. Shimeta, C. A. Zimmer and P. Traykovski, “Mapping Epibenthic Assemblages and Their Relations to Sedimentary Features in Shallow-Water, High-Energy Environments,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2002, pp. 565-583. doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(01)00074-7

[9]   M. Diesing, A. Kubicki, C. Winter and K. Schwarzer, “Decadal Scale Stability of Sorted Bedforms, German Bight, Southeastern North Sea,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 26, No. 8, 2006, pp. 902-916. doi:10.1016/j.csr.2006.02.009

[10]   M. Leecaster, “Spatial Analysis of Grain-Size in Santa Monica Bay,” Marine Environmental Research, Vol. 56, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 67-78. doi:10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00325-2

[11]   E. E. Antia, “Rates and Patterns of Migration of Shoreface-Connected Sandy Rdiges along the Southern North Sea Coast,” Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1996, pp. 38-46. ISSN: 0749-0208.

[12]   E. E. Antia, “Surface Grain-Size Statistical Parameters of a North Sea Shoreface-Connected Ridge: Patterns and Process Implication,” Geo-Marine Letter, Vol. 13, 1993, pp. 172-181. doi:10.1007/BF01593191

[13]   H. Reiss, S. Degraer, G. C. A. Duineveld, I. Kroencke, J. Aldridge, J. A. Craeymeersch, et al., “Spatial Patterns of Infauna, Epifauna, and Demersal Fish Communitites in the North Sea,” ICES Journal of Marine Science, Vol. 67, No. 2, 2010, pp. 278-293. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsp253

[14]   A. Lezama-Ochoa, M. Ballon, M. Woillez, D. Grados, X. Irigoien and A. Bertrand, “Spatial Patterns and Scale-Dependent Relationships between Macrozooplankton and Fish in the Bay of Biscay: An Acoustic Study,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 439, 2011, pp. 151-168. doi:10.3354/meps09318

[15]   F. D. van der Meer, “Introduction to Geostatistics,” ITC Lecture Notes, ITC, Enschede, 1993, p. 72.

[16]   P. Goovaerts, “Geostatistics for Natural Resources Evaluation,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1997.

[17]   D. F. Maune, Ed., “Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM Users Manual,” ASPRS, Bethesda, 2001.

[18]   H. J. de Knegt, F. van Langevelde, M. B. Coughenour, A. K. Skidmore, W. F. de Boer, I. M. A. Heitk?nig, et al., “Spatial Autocorrelation and the Scaling of Species-Environment Relationships,” Ecology, Vol. 91, 2010, pp. 2455- 2465.

[19]   N. Cressie, “Statistics for Spatial Data,” Wiley, New York, 1993.

[20]   H. Wackernagel, “Multivariate Geostatistics,” Springer, London, 2003.

[21]   A. G. Journel and C. J., Huijbregts, “Mining Geostatistics,” Academic Press, New York, 1978.

[22]   H. Wackernagel, “Multivariate Geostatistics,” Springer, Berlin, 1998.

[23]   C. V. Deutsch, and A. G. Journel, “GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User’s Guide,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992.

[24]   S. Dowdy and S. Wearden, “Statistics for Research,” Wiley, New York, 1983.

[25]   E. H. Isaaks and R. M. Srivastava, “An Introduction to Applied Geostatistics,” Oxford University Press, New York, 1989.

[26]   S. F. Thrush, J. E. Hewitt, G. A. Funnell, V. J. Cummings, J. Ellis, D. Schultz, et al., “Fishing Disturbance and Marine Biodiversity: The Role of Habitat Structure in Simple Soft-Sediment Systems,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 223, 2001, pp. 277-286. doi:10.3354/meps223277

[27]   A. Genin, “Bio-Physical Coupling in the Formation of Zooplankton and Fish Aggregations over Abrupt Topographies,” Journal of Marine System, Vol. 50, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 3-20. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2003.10.008

[28]   A. Bertrand, F. Gerlotto, S. Bertrand, M. Gutierrez, et al., “Schooling Behaviour and Environmental Forcing in Relation to Anchoveta Distribution: An Analysis across Multiple Spatial Scales,” Progress in Oceanography, Vol. 79, 2008, pp. 264-277. doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2008.10.018.

 
 
Top