OJG  Vol.2 No.4 , October 2012
Wadi Fatima Thin-Skinned Foreland FAT Belt: A Post Amalgamation Marine Basin in the Arabian Shield
Wadi Fatima fold-thrust (FAT) belt is a distinctive foreland FAT belt in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) involving unmetamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed sedimentary sequence of Fatima Group, deposited over a metamorphic/igneous basement, comprising ortho-amphibolites, orthoand para-schists (with chaotic unmappable blocks of marbles, pyroxenites and metagabbros), older granite (773 ± 16 Ma) and younger granite. The basement exhibits structural fabrics, such as attenuated tight isoclinal folds, sheared-out hinges, NE-SW penetrative foliation and subhorizontal stretched and mineral lineations, related to an oldest prominent dextral shearing phase affected the main Wadi Fatima during the Neoproterozoic. In Wadi Fatima FAT belt, the of deformation encompasses flexural-slip folding forming mesoscopicand map-scales NE to ENE plunging overturned antiforms and synforms, and a thrust duplex system bounded by floor thrust and sole thrust (basal detachment) dipping gently towards the hinterland (SE to SSE direction) and rises stratigraphically upwards towards the foreland. Such is affiliated to thin-skinned deformation. Several lines of evidence, such as geometry of interacting outcropand map-scale folds and thrusts, patterns of thrust displacement variations and indications for hinge migration during fold growth, strongly suggest that folding and thrusting in Wadi Fatima FAT belt are geometrically and kinematically linked and that thrusting initiated as a consequence of folding (fold-first kinematics). Thrusts frequently show flat-ramp-flat geometry, and every so often give an impression that they are formed during two main sub-stages; an older sub-stage during which bedding sub-parallel thrusts were formed, and a younger sub-stage which generated younger ramps oblique to bedding. Thrust ramps with SE to SSE dipping regularly show sequential decrease in dip or inclination (due to piggy-back imbrication) into their transport direction which is proposed to be towards NW to NNW. Evidence indicating this transport direction of Wadi Fatima FAT belt embrace NW to NNW oriented stretching lineations recorded along thrust planes, NW to NNW folding vergence, and diminishing of the intensity of deformation and thrust stacking and imbrication from SE to NW; i.e. from hinterland to foreland. The tectonic transport vector is congruent with the mean orientation of slickenline striae formed by layer-parallel slipping along folded bedding planes. The mean orientation of slickenline lineations, after their host beds were rotated to horizontal about their strikes, is found to be N25°W - S25°E. Two tectonic models are proposed to unravel the structural history of the study area and to illustrate the tectonic evolution of Wadi Fatima FAT belt which represents one of interesting foreland FAT belts recorded worldwide. In the first model, the area was evolved from dextral shearing during the early convergence and amalgamation between East and West Gondwana, to emplacement of the older granite during a period of crustal cessation and relaxation, NNW SSE extension and extrusion of dyke swarms, emplacement of younger granite, deposition of Fatima Group over an ancient peneplain, layer parallel shortening, folding and fold tightening and overturning, thrusting, NE-SW (to NNE-SSW) shortening, and eventually NE tilting accompanied with Red Sea rifting (?). The second model suggests the presence of basement ramps (pre-existing normal faults), with NW to NNW dipping, have a strong effect on overlying Fatima Group which was evolved throughout gravitational, soft-sediment slumping and deformation.

Cite this paper
Hamimi, Z. , Matsah, M. , El-Shafei, M. , El-Fakharani, A. , Shujoon, A. and Al-Gabali, M. (2012) Wadi Fatima Thin-Skinned Foreland FAT Belt: A Post Amalgamation Marine Basin in the Arabian Shield. Open Journal of Geology, 2, 271-293. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2012.24027.
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