ABSTRACT Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was utilized to monitor lesions created at temperature below the boiling point and lesions created at temperature above the boiling point using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in freshly excised kidney, liver and brain and in vivo rabbit kidney and brain. T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) was proven as an excellent MRI sequence that can detect lesions with temperature above the boiling point in kidney. This advantage is attributed to the significant difference in signal intensity between the cavity and the thermal lesion. In liver the MRI sequence of Proton Density is recommended to detect lesions above boiling. In brain T1-W FSE was the optimum pulse sequence to detect lesions of either type. In order to monitor the temperature elevation during a HIFU exposure, T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient (FSPGR) was used. The shape of the focal temperature distribution was uniform with the absence of boiling, whereas with an exposure affected by boiling, the temperature distribution could be of irregular shape, demonstrating the drastic effects taking place during boiling. In order to confirm that boiling occurred, the temperature was estimated using the widely used method of Proton Resonance Frequency (PRF) shift.
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nullDamianou, C. , Ioannides, K. , Hadjisavvas, V. , Mylonas, N. , Couppis, A. , Iosif, D. and Kyriacou, P. (2010) MRI monitoring of lesions created at temperature below the boiling point and of lesions created above the boiling point using high intensity focused ultrasound. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 3, 763-775. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2010.38102.
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