To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn

Affiliation(s)

Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, Brown University, Providence, USA.

Department of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies, Brown University, Providence, USA.

ABSTRACT

The present paper is part of a large scale project in Intelligence Science. The nearterm aim of this project is the increased digitalization of the analysis of human intelligence in as far as intelligence is rational. The ultimate aim is to draw up a complete and definitive map of the totality of rational human intelligence or rational thought and language. As far as the mathematical component of this project is concerned, two contributions have appeared so far, the following: 1) “The Monty Hall Problem and beyond: Digital-Mathematical and Cognitive Analysis in Boole’s Algebra, Including an Extension and Generalization to Related Cases”, in*Advances in Pure Mathematics *(www.scirp.org/journal/apm), Vol. 1, No. 4 (July 2011), pp. 136-154; 2) “Higher Variations of the Monty Hall Problem (3.0, 4.0) and Empirical Definition of the Phenomenon of Mathematics, in Boole’s Footsteps, as Something the Brain Does”, in *Advances in Pure Mathematics* (www.scirp.org/journal/apm), Vol. 2, No. 4 (July 2012), pp. 243-273, including an appendix by Richard D. Gill. The present paper pertains to the linguistics branch of the project. It is concerned with linguistic cognition. The focus of this paper is on a single phenomenon, the relative clause and all its possible types. The method of analyzing the structure of rational thought and language that is advanced in this paper and applied to the relative clause claims validity on the following three grounds. First, it is mathematical and digital in the strictest possible sense. Second, the empirical data to which this mathematical method is applied are fully accessible in language. After all, all that is essential to that structure must be exteriorized in sounds or written symbols for the structure to be transported from one brain to another and understood. The structure must somehow be encoded in its entirety in the airwaves or light beams that travel to a hearer’s ear or a reader’s eye. And these airwaves and light beams are accessible to observation. Third, general inspiration and encouragement can be drawn from the fact that it has already been long established that the brain teems with digital activity, including in the prefrontal cortex. In sum, there is every incentive for dissecting language in search of the digital structure of rational thought and its expression in language. The design of the present paper is to demonstrate that the structure can be found.

The present paper is part of a large scale project in Intelligence Science. The nearterm aim of this project is the increased digitalization of the analysis of human intelligence in as far as intelligence is rational. The ultimate aim is to draw up a complete and definitive map of the totality of rational human intelligence or rational thought and language. As far as the mathematical component of this project is concerned, two contributions have appeared so far, the following: 1) “The Monty Hall Problem and beyond: Digital-Mathematical and Cognitive Analysis in Boole’s Algebra, Including an Extension and Generalization to Related Cases”, in

Cite this paper

L. Depuydt, "To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn,"*International Journal of Intelligence Science*, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 106-114. doi: 10.4236/ijis.2012.24015.

L. Depuydt, "To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn,"

References

[1] L. Depuydt, “Questions and Related Phenomena in Coptic and in General: Final Definitions Based on Boole’s Laws of Thought,” In: D. W. Johnson, J. E. Goehring and J. E. Timbie, Eds., The World of Early Egyptian Christianity, The Catholic University of America Press, Washington DC, 2007, pp. 72-94.

[2] L. Depuydt, “The Other Mathematics,” Gorgias Press, Piscataway, 2008, pp. 307-321.

[3] L. Depuydt, “The Conjunctive in Egyptian and Coptic: Towards a Final Definition in Boolean Terms,” In: Ch. G. H?berl, Ed., Afroasiatic Studies in Memory of Robert Hetzron: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the North American Conference on Afroasiatic Linguistics (NACAL 35), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, 2009, pp. 12-30.

[4] L. Depuydt, “Towards the Full Digitalization of Grammar: The Case of the Egyptian and Coptic Nominal Sentence,” Lingua Aegyptia, Vol. 17, 2010, pp. 27-50.

[5] L. Depuydt, “From ‘My Body’ to ‘Myself’ to ‘As For Me’ to ‘Me Too’: Philological and Digital Analysis of a Triple Shift in Egyptian,” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 45, 2009, pp. 247-290.

[6] L. Depuydt, “Zur Unausweichlichen Digitalisierung der Sprachbetrachtung: ‘Allein’, ‘Anderer’, ‘Auch’, ‘Einziger’, ‘(Seiner)Seits’, und ‘Selbst’ als Digitales Wortfeld im ?gyptisch-Koptischen und im Allgemeinen,” In: A. I. Bl?baum, K. Butt and I. K?hler, Eds., Lexical Fields, Semantics and Lexicography, Aegyptiaca Monasteriensia, Vol. 7, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2011, pp. 5-38.

[7] G. Boole, “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities,” Walton and Maberly, London, 1854, p. 4.

[8] C. J. Chivers, “Political Heir Is Less Rosy than Putin on the State of Russia,” The New York Times, 2008. www.nytimes.com/2008/02/16/world/europe/16russia.html

[9] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” 2 Vols., American Studies in Papyrology 27 and 29, Scholars Press, Decatur (Vol. 1) and Atlanta (Vol. 2), 1987 and 1990, p. 51.

[10] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 45-127.

[11] B. Layton, “A Coptic Grammar,” 2nd Edition, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 324-335.

[12] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, p. 93.

[13] G. Boole, “Studies in Logic and Probability,” Edited by R. Rhees, Watts & Co., London, 1952, pp. 211-229.

[14] G. Boole, “Studies in Logic and Probability,” Edited by R. Rhees, Watts & Co., London, 1952, p. 211.

[15] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 89-93.

[16] B. Layton, “A Coptic Grammar,” Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 329-331.

[17] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 104-105.

[18] B. Layton, “A Coptic Grammar,” Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 331-332.

[19] J. Venn, “Symbolic Logic,” 2nd Edition, Macmillan and Co., London and New York, 1894.

[20] G. Boole, “Investigation,” Walton and Maberly, London, 1854, p. 35.

[21] H. J. Polotsky, “‘Article’ and ‘Determinative Pronoun’ in Coptic,” Lingua Aegyptia, Vol. 1, 1991, pp. 241-242.

[22] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 81-84.

[23] E. Schr?der, “Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik (Exakte Logik),” Vol. 1, B.G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1895, p. 319.

[1] L. Depuydt, “Questions and Related Phenomena in Coptic and in General: Final Definitions Based on Boole’s Laws of Thought,” In: D. W. Johnson, J. E. Goehring and J. E. Timbie, Eds., The World of Early Egyptian Christianity, The Catholic University of America Press, Washington DC, 2007, pp. 72-94.

[2] L. Depuydt, “The Other Mathematics,” Gorgias Press, Piscataway, 2008, pp. 307-321.

[3] L. Depuydt, “The Conjunctive in Egyptian and Coptic: Towards a Final Definition in Boolean Terms,” In: Ch. G. H?berl, Ed., Afroasiatic Studies in Memory of Robert Hetzron: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Meeting of the North American Conference on Afroasiatic Linguistics (NACAL 35), Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, 2009, pp. 12-30.

[4] L. Depuydt, “Towards the Full Digitalization of Grammar: The Case of the Egyptian and Coptic Nominal Sentence,” Lingua Aegyptia, Vol. 17, 2010, pp. 27-50.

[5] L. Depuydt, “From ‘My Body’ to ‘Myself’ to ‘As For Me’ to ‘Me Too’: Philological and Digital Analysis of a Triple Shift in Egyptian,” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 45, 2009, pp. 247-290.

[6] L. Depuydt, “Zur Unausweichlichen Digitalisierung der Sprachbetrachtung: ‘Allein’, ‘Anderer’, ‘Auch’, ‘Einziger’, ‘(Seiner)Seits’, und ‘Selbst’ als Digitales Wortfeld im ?gyptisch-Koptischen und im Allgemeinen,” In: A. I. Bl?baum, K. Butt and I. K?hler, Eds., Lexical Fields, Semantics and Lexicography, Aegyptiaca Monasteriensia, Vol. 7, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, 2011, pp. 5-38.

[7] G. Boole, “An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities,” Walton and Maberly, London, 1854, p. 4.

[8] C. J. Chivers, “Political Heir Is Less Rosy than Putin on the State of Russia,” The New York Times, 2008. www.nytimes.com/2008/02/16/world/europe/16russia.html

[9] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” 2 Vols., American Studies in Papyrology 27 and 29, Scholars Press, Decatur (Vol. 1) and Atlanta (Vol. 2), 1987 and 1990, p. 51.

[10] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 45-127.

[11] B. Layton, “A Coptic Grammar,” 2nd Edition, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 324-335.

[12] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, p. 93.

[13] G. Boole, “Studies in Logic and Probability,” Edited by R. Rhees, Watts & Co., London, 1952, pp. 211-229.

[14] G. Boole, “Studies in Logic and Probability,” Edited by R. Rhees, Watts & Co., London, 1952, p. 211.

[15] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 89-93.

[16] B. Layton, “A Coptic Grammar,” Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 329-331.

[17] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 104-105.

[18] B. Layton, “A Coptic Grammar,” Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2004, pp. 331-332.

[19] J. Venn, “Symbolic Logic,” 2nd Edition, Macmillan and Co., London and New York, 1894.

[20] G. Boole, “Investigation,” Walton and Maberly, London, 1854, p. 35.

[21] H. J. Polotsky, “‘Article’ and ‘Determinative Pronoun’ in Coptic,” Lingua Aegyptia, Vol. 1, 1991, pp. 241-242.

[22] H. J. Polotsky, “Grundlagen des Koptischen Satzbaus,” Scholars Press, Decatur and Atlanta, 1987 and 1990, pp. 81-84.

[23] E. Schr?der, “Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik (Exakte Logik),” Vol. 1, B.G. Teubner, Leipzig, 1895, p. 319.