ABB  Vol.1 No.3 , August 2010
Development of acidophilus milk via selected probiotics & prebiotics using artificial neural network
ABSTRACT
Commercial interest in functional foods containing probiotic strains has consistently increased due to the awareness of gut health. Recent advancements are leading to development of synbiotic foods, containing prebiotics and probiotics bearing synergistic effects of the two. Thus, in present study, synbiotic acido- philus milk was developed satisfying functional dairy food properties. Different sets of milk were fermented with probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus casei, bioyoghurt culture) singly or in combination, and prebiotics namely inulin (I), oat fibre (O) and honey (H). Obtained 20 synbiotic samples were organoleptically tested, physico-chemically (titrable acidity percentage (TA) & pH) and microbiologically (total viable count (TVC), coliform count and yeast & mold count) analyzed. The incorporation of honey and inulin led to development of sweetened and low calorie sweetened synbiotic acidophilus milk, respectively. Incorporation of B. bifidum increased the flavour of synbiotic acidophilus milk when compared to L. acidophilus as control, where as L. casei culture showed thinner consistency in the product. Addition of prebiotic affected only the sensory scores, whereas the probiotics addition resulted in a marginal variation of pH and TA. TVC of all synbiotic acidophilus milk samples obtained were more than desirable limits for harvesting probiotic effects (>10^10 cfu/ml). Finally, a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) was established to predict the sensory evaluation based on inputs of probiotic and prebiotic.

Cite this paper
nullRaftaniamiri, Z. , Khandelwal, P. and Aruna, B. (2010) Development of acidophilus milk via selected probiotics & prebiotics using artificial neural network. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 1, 224-231. doi: 10.4236/abb.2010.13031.
References
[1]   De Roos, N.M. and Katan, M.B. (1998) Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: A review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(2), 405-411.

[2]   Meile, L., Blay, G.L. and Thierry, A. (2008) Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Propionibacterium and Bifidobacterium. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 126(3), 316-320.

[3]   Tharmaraj, N., Nagendra, P. and Shah, N.P. (2004) Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis and Propionibacterium in cheese- based dips and the suitability of dips as effective carriers of probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal, 14(12), 1055-1066.

[4]   Douglas, L.C. and Sanders, M.E. (2008) Probiotics and prebiotics in dietetics practice. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(3), 510-521.

[5]   Verma, S.V.S. and Singh, R. (1995) Probiotic and their role in broiler chicken production: An overview. Journal of Animal Science, 10, 359-363.

[6]   Niness, K.R. (1999) Inulin and oligofructose. What are they? Journal of Nutrition, 129(7), 1402-1406.

[7]   Jenkins, D.J.A., Kendall, C.W.C. and Vladimir, V. (1999) Effect of inulin and oligofructose on intestinal flora. Journal of Nutrition, 5(2), 1431-1433.

[8]   Villaluenga, C.M., Frías, J., Gómez, R. and Valverde, C.V. (2006) Influence of addition of raffinose family oligosaccharides on probiotic survival in fermented milk during refrigerated storage. International Dairy Journal, 16(7), 768-774.

[9]   Zárate, G., Chaia, A.P. and Oliver, G. (2002) Some characteristics of practical relevance of the β-galactosi- dase from potential probiotic strains of propionibacterium acidipropionici, Anaerobe, 8(5), 259-267.

[10]   Mehanna, N.S., Salem, M.M.E., Zaky, W.M. and El- Khalek, A.B.A. (2003) Viability of probiotic bacteria in functional fermented milk. Annals of Agricultural Science, 48, 691-702.

[11]   Sanz, M.L., Polemis, N., Morales, V., Corzo, N., Dva- koularakou, A. and Gibson, G.R. (2005) In vitro investigation of potential prebiotic activity of honey oligosaccharides. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 11(3), 2914-2921.

[12]   Sun, D.W. and Brosnan, T. (2003) Pizza quality evaluation using computer vision-Part 1 Pizza base and sauce spread. Journal of Food Engineering, 57(1), 81-89.

[13]   Sun, D.W. and Brosnan, T. (2003) Pizza quality evaluation using computer vision-Part 2 Pizza topping analysis. Journal of Food Engineering, 57(1), 91-95.

[14]   Gnanasekharan, V. and Floros, J.D. (1995) Back propagation neural networks: Theory and applications for food science and technology. Developments in Food Science, 37(2), 2151-2168.

[15]   Eerik?inen, T., Linko, P., Linko, S., Siimes, T. and Zhu, Y.H. (1993) Fuzzy logic and neural network applications in food science and technology. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 4(8), 237-242.

[16]   Hernández, J.A. (2008) Optimum operating conditions for heat and mass transfer in foodstuffs drying by means of neural network inverse. Food Control, 20(4), 435-438.

[17]   Zenoozian, M.S. and Devahastin, S. (2009) Application of wavelet transform coupled with artificial neural network for predicting physicochemical properties of osmotically dehydrated pumpkin. Journal of Food Engineer- ing, 90(2), 219-227.

[18]   Zeng, X., Ruan, D. and Koehl, L. (2008) Intelligent sensory evaluation: Concepts, implementations, and applications. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 77 (5-6), 443-452.

[19]   Munkevik, P., Hall, G. and Duckett, T. (2007) A computer vision system for appearance-based descriptive sensory evaluation of meals. Journal of Food Engineer- ing, 78(1), 246-256.

[20]   Ranganna, S. (2002) Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw- Hill, New Delhi.

[21]   Chen, M.J, Chen, K.N. and Kin, C.W. (2006) Development and verification of an optimum composition model for a symbiotic fermented milk using sequential quadratic programming techniques, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 19(10), 1490-1495.

[22]   Amiri, Z.R. (2001) Optimization of parameters for low fat prebiotic quality yoghurt using RSM and to study the effect of probiotic cultures during its storage. Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy, G.B. Pant University of Agricul- ture and Technology, Pantnagar.

[23]   Khandelwal, P. (2002) Studies on the preparation of symbiotic yoghurt-cheese from buffalo milk. Thesis, Doctor of Philosophy, G.B. Pant University of Agricul- ture and Technology, Pantnagar.

[24]   Oliveira, M.N., Sodini, I., Remeuf, F. and Corrieu, G. (2001) Effect of milk supplementation and culture composition on acidification, textural properties and microbiological stability of fermented milks containing probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal, 11(11-12), 935-942.

[25]   Salminen, S., Bouley, C. and Boutron-Ruault, M.C. (1998) Gastrointestinal physiology and function—targets for functional food development. British Journal of Nutrition, 80(Suppl 1), S147-S171.

[26]   Kim. H.S. (1998) Characterization of lactabacilli and bifidobacteria as applied to dietary adjuncts. Journal of Dairy Science, 23, 6-9.

[27]   Vinderola, C.G., Costa, G.A., Regenhardt, S. and Reinheimer, J.A. (2002) Influence of compounds associated with fermented dairy products on the growth of lactic acid starter and probiotic bacteria. International Dairy Journal, 12(7), 579-589.

 
 
Top