ABCR  Vol.1 No.3 , October 2012
Pesticides and Breast Cancer
ABSTRACT
Along with other etiological factors like genetics, family history, age, etc. there is growing scientific evidence that exposure to chemicals, including pesticides is associated with increased incidence of breast cancer among women. Various animal studies have demonstrated the carcinogenic effect of pesticides byacting as Xenoestrogen, interacting and disrupting estrogen receptors or by damaging breast tissue DNA inducing malignancy/catalyzing existing DNA mutation in susceptible individuals. Pesticide’s role as a contributing etiological factor in growing incidence of breast cancer is of particular concern as pesticides is one of the chemicals to which humans get exposed every day in significant concentration. In this review we describe various kinds of pesticides and their respective associations to breast cancer.

Cite this paper
Ferro, R., Parvathaneni, A., Patel, S. and Cheriyath, P. (2012) Pesticides and Breast Cancer. Advances in Breast Cancer Research, 1, 30-35. doi: 10.4236/abcr.2012.13005.
References
[1]   National Cancer Institute, “Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results,” 2009. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html

[2]   R. L. Cooper, T. E. Stoker, L. Tyrey, J. Goldman and W. McElroy, “Atrazine Disrupts the Hypothalamic Control of Pituitary-Ovarian Function,” Toxicology Science, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2000, pp. 297-307. doi:10.1093/toxsci/53.2.297 http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/53/2/297.full

[3]   T. Hayes, K. Haston, M. Tsui, A. Honag, C. Haeffele and A. Vonk, “Atrazine-Induced Hermaphroditism at 0.1 ppb in American Leopard Frogs (Ranapipiens): Laboratory and Field Evidence,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 111, No. 4, 2003, pp. 568-575. doi:10.1289/ehp.5932

[4]   W. Q. Fan, T. Yanase, H. Morinaga, T. Yanase, H. Morinaga, S. Gondo, T. Okabe, M. Nomura, T. Komatsu, K.-I. Morohashi, T. Hayes, R. Takayanagi and H. Nawata “Atrazine-Induced Aromatase Expression in SF-1 Dependent: Implications for Endocrine Disruption in Wildlife and Reproductive Cancers in Humans,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, 2007, pp. 720-727. doi:10.1289/ehp.9758

[5]   M. Ueda, T. Imai, T. Takizawa, H. Onodera, K. Mitsumori, T. Matsui and M. Hirose, “Possible Enhancing Effects of Atrazine on Growth of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a) Anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumors in Ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley Rats,” Cancer science, Vol. 96, No. 1, 2005 , pp. 19-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15649250 doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2005.00008.x

[6]   J. L. Raynor, R. R. Enoch and S. E. Fenton, “Adverse Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Atrazine during a Critical Period of Mammary Gland Growth,” Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2005, pp. 255-266. http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/87/1/255.full doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfi213

[7]   B. A. Cohn, M. S. Wolff, P. M. Cirillo and R. I. Sholtz, “DDT and Breast Cancer in Young Women: New Data on the Significance of Age at Exposure,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 115, No. 10, 2007, pp. 406- 1414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2022666/

[8]   C. Charlier, A. Albert, P. Herman, E. Hamoir, U. Gaspard, M. Meurisse and G Plomteux, “Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorine Residues,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine,” Vol. 60, No. 5, 2003, pp. 348-351. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1740527/

[9]   I. Romieu, M. Hernandez, E. Lazcano-Ponce, J. P. Weber and E. Dewailly, “Breast Cancer, Lactation History, and Serum Organochlorines,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 152, No. 4, 2000, pp. 363-370. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/152/4/363 doi:10.1093/aje/152.4.363

[10]   A. Demers, P. Ayotte, J. Brisson, S. Dodin, J. Robert and E. Dewailly, “Risk and Aggressiveness of Breast Cancer in Relation to Plasma Organochlorine Concentrations,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2000, pp. 161-166. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/9/2/161.full

[11]   H. R. Andersen, A. M. Vinggaard, T. H. Rasmussen, et al., “Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro,” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, Vol. 179, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1-12.

[12]   H. L. Cameron and W. G. Foster, “Developmental and Lactational Exposure to Dieldrin Alters Mammary Tumorigenesis in Her2/Neu Transgenic Mice,” PLoS One, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2009, p. e4303. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004303

[13]   A. P. H?yer, P. Grandjean, T. J?rgensen, J. W. Brock and H. B. Hartvig, “Dieldrin as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer and for Increased Mortality Once Breast Cancer is Detected,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 2002, No. 53, 2000, pp. 323-330. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/newscience/human/cancer/dieldrin.htm doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00165-1

[14]   R. A. Cassidy, S. Natarajan and G. M. Vaughan, “The Link between the Insecticide Heptachlor Epoxide, Estradiol, and Breast Cancer,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2005, pp. 55-64. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/7963366_The_link_between_the_insecticide_heptachlor_epoxide_estradiol_and_breast_cancer doi:10.1007/s10549-004-2755-0

[15]   R. Cassidy, “Cancer and Chlordane-Treated Homes: A Pinch of Prevention Is Worth a Pound of Cure,” Leukemia & Lymphoma, Vol. 51, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1363-1364. http://www.toxfree.net/chlordane/Cassidy/cassidypdf/CancerandChlordane-TreatedHomes.pdf doi:10.3109/10428194.2010.483304

[16]   F. Falck Jr., A. Ricci Jr., M. S. Wolff, J. Godbold and P. Deckers, “Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Human Breast Lipids and Their Relation to Breast Cancer,” Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1992, pp. 143-146. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1567239

[17]   Z.-H. Li, X.-Y. Liu, N. Wang, J.-S. Chen, Y.-H. Chen, et al., “Effects of Decabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE-209) in Regulation of Growth and Apoptosis of Breast, Ovarian, and Cervical Cancer Cells,” Environ Health Perspect, Vol. 120, No. 4, 2012, pp. 541-546. http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.1104051 doi:10.1289/ehp.1104051

[18]   S. Liu, S. Li and Y. Du, “Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Enhance Metastatic Properties of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating Rho-Associated Kinase (ROCK),” PLoS One, Vol. 5, No. 6, 2010, p. e11272. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011272 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011272

[19]   J. Muscat, J. Britton, M. Djordjevic, M. Citron, M. Kemeny, E. Devereaux, B. Pittman, S. Stellman, “Adipose Concentrations of Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer Recurrence in Long Island, New York,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 12, 2003, p. 1474. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/12/12/1474.short

[20]   A. P. Hoyer, T. J?rgensen, F. Rank and P. Grandjea, “Organo-Chlorine Exposures Influence on Breast Cancer Risk and Survival According to Estrogen Receptor Status: A Danish Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study,” Biomed Central Cancer, Vol. 1, No. 8, 2001. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/1/8

[21]   Z.-H. Li, X.-Y. Liu, N. Wang, J.-S. Chen, Y.-H. Chen, J.-T. Huang, C.-H. Su, F. K. Xie, B. Yu and D.-J. Chen, “Effects of Decabrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE-209) in Regulation of Growth and Apoptosis of Breast, Ovarian, and Cervical Cancer Cells,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 120, No. 4, 2012, pp. 541-546. http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.1104051

[22]   P. K. Mills and R. Yang, “Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic Agricultural Workers in California,” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2005, pp. 123-131. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15875887

[23]   E. Lawrence, D. Hill, J. Hoppin, J. Lubin, C. Lynch, J. Pierce, C. Samanic, D. Sandler, A. Blair and M. Alavanja, “Pesticide Use and Breast Cancer Risk among Farmers’ Wives in the Agricultural Health Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 161, No. 2, 2005, pp. 121-135. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi022

[24]   S. Hilaire, R. Mandal, A. Commendador, S. Mannel and D. Derryberry, “Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancers and Their Association with Environmental Factors,” International Journal of Health Geographics, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2011, p. 32. http://www.ij-healthgeographics.com/content/10/1/32 doi:10.1186/1476-072X-10-32

 
 
Top