ABSTRACT Tests of phonological awareness have been developed for spoken languages that require spoken responses. For many deaf individuals, spoken measures of phonological awareness (PA) are not appropriate, as these deaf individuals do not use any spoken language or their oral language is rated as low on levels of aural comprehension. Given the need to have accessible measures of spoken language PA for deaf children, the VL2 Spoken Language Phonological Awareness Measure (VL2-SLPA) was developed. The VL2-SLPA can also determine if participants use a phonological code or an orthographic code to identify the two pictures that have the same first or last “sound”. The VL2-SLPA showed strong convergent validity to the Phoneme Detection Test, another measure developed for deaf individuals, which does not require a verbal response.
Cite this paper
Clark, M. (2012). The VL2-Spoken Language Phonological Awareness (VL2-SLPA) Measure. Psychology, 3, 912-915. doi: 10.4236/psych.2012.310137.
 Allen, T. E., Clark, M. D., del Giudice, A. Koo, D., Lieberman, A., Mayberry, R., & Miller, P. (2009). Phonology and reading: A response to Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul. American Annuals of the Deaf, 154, 338-345.
 Bélanger, N. N., & Baum, S. R., & Mayberry, R. I. (2011). Reading difficulties in adult deaf readers of French: Phonological codes, not quilty! Scientific Studies of Reading, 1-23.
 Chard, D. J., & Dickson, S. V. (1999). Phonological awareness: Instructional and assessment guidelines. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34, 261-270.
 Clark, M. D., Gilbert, G. L., & Anderson, M. L. (2011). Morphological knowledge and decoding skills in deaf readers. Psychology, 2, 109- 116.
 Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 Conrad, R. (1979). The deaf school child. London: Harper and Row.
 Koo, D., Crain, K., LaSasso, C., & Eden, G. F. (2008). Awareness and short-term memory in hearing and deaf individuals of different communication backgrounds. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science, 1145, 83-99.
 LaSasso, C., Colin, S., & Leybaert, J. (2011). Cued Speech for deaf children’s mastery of the alphabetic principle. In C. LaSasso, K. Crain, & J. Leybaert (Eds.), Cued Speech and Cued Language for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children (pp. 245-284). San Diego, CA: Plural Publications Inc.
 Liberman, A. M., Harris, K. S., Hoffman, H., & Griffith, B. (1957). The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 52, 127-137.
 Miller, P., & Clark, M. D. (2011). Phonemic awareness is not necessary to become a skilled deaf reader. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities.
 Miller, P., Kargin, T., & Clark, M. D. (2010). The VL2 Spoken Language Phonological Awareness (VL2-SLPA) Measure. Washington: Gallaudet University.
 Paul, P. V., Wang, Y., Trezek, B. J., & Luckner, J. L. (2009). Phonology is necessary, but not sufficient: A rejoinder. American Annals of the Deaf, 152, 346-356.
 Perfetti, C. A., Beck, I., Bell, L. C., & Hughes, C. (1987). Phonemic knowledge and learning to read are reciprocal: A longitudinal study of first grade children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 33, 283-319.
 Shankweiler, D., & Liberman, I. (1989). Phonology and reading disability. IARLD Monograph, No. 6. Ann Arbor, MI: University Press.
 Stanovich, K. E., & Siegel, L. S. (1987). The phenotypic performance profile of reading-disabled children: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 24-53.
 Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192-212.
 Wagner, R. K, Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). The comprehensive test of phonological processing: Examiner’s manual. Austin, TX: pro-ed.
 Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2007). Woodcock Johnson III. Rolling Meadows, IL: Riverside Publishing Company.