A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, Y. P. Hao, J. Q. Xu, T. Murray and M. J. Thun, “Cancer Statistics, 2008,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2008, pp. 71-96. doi:10.3322/CA.2007.0010
 F. T. Odedina, T. O. Akinremi, F. Chinegwundoh, R. Roberts, D. Yu, R. R. Reams, M. L. Freedman, B. Rivers, B. L. Green and N. Kumar, “Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men of African Descent: A Comparative Literature Review of Prostate Cancer Burden among Black Men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa,” Infectious Agents and Cancer, Vol. 4, Suppl. 1, 2009, p. S2. doi:10.1186/1750-9378-4-S1-S2
 S. Koutros, S. I. Berndt, R. Sinha, X. Ma, N. Chatterjee, M. C. Alavanja, T. Zheng, W. Y. Huang, R. B. Hayes and A. J. Cross, “Xenobiotic Metabolizing Gene Variants, Dietary Heterocyclic Amine Intake, and Risk of Prostate Cancer,” Cancer Research, Vol. 69, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1877-1884. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2447
 G. R. Stuart, J. Holcroft, J. G. de Boer and B. W. Glickman, “Prostate Mutations in Rats Induced by the Suspected Human Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine,” Cancer Research, Vol. 60, No. 2, 2000, pp. 266-268.
 M. Shelley, C. Harrison, B. Coles, J. Staffurth, T. Wilt and M. Mason, “Chemotherapy for Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2006, Article ID: CD005247.
 M. J. Barry, D. S. Kaufman and C. L. Wu, “Case, Records of the Massachusetts General Hospital, Case 15-2008, a 55-Year-Old Man with an Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen Level and Early-Stage Prostate Cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 358, No. 20, 2008, pp. 2161-2168. doi:10.1056/NEJMcpc0707057
 A. Bill-Axelson, L. Holmberg, M. Ruutu, M. Haggman, S. O. Andersson, S. Bratell, A. Sp?ngberg, C. Busch, S. Nordling, H. Garmo, J. Palmgren, H. O. Adami, B. J. Norlén and J. E. Johansson, “Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study No. 4. Radical Prostatectomy versus Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 352, No. 19, 2005, pp. 1977-1984. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043739
 E. M. Horwitz, K. Bae, G. E. Hanks, A. Porter, D. J. Grignon, H. D. Brereton, V. Venkatesan, C. A. Lawton, S. A. Rosenthal, H. M. Sandler and W. U. Shipley, “Ten-Year Follow-Up of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02: A Phase III Trial of the Duration of Elective Androgen Deprivation in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 26, No. 15, 2008, pp. 2497-2504. doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.14.9021
 E. M. Messing, J. Manola, M. Sarosdy, G. Wilding, E. D. Crawford and D. Trump, “Immediate Hormonal Therapy Compared with Observation after Radical Prostatectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Men with Node-Positive Prostate Cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, No. 24, 1999, pp. 1781-1788. doi:10.1056/NEJM199912093412401
 Y. K. Lau, M. K. Chadha, A. Litwin and D. L. Trump, “A Dramatic, Objective Antiandrogen Withdrawal Response: Case Report and Review of the Literature,” Journal of Hematology & Oncology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008, p. 21. doi:10.1186/1756-8722-1-21
 E. M. Messing, J. Manola, J. Yao, M. Kiernan, D. Crawford, G. Wilding, P. A. di’SantAgnese and D. Trump, “Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study EST Immediate versus Deferred Androgen Deprivation Treatment in Patients with Node-Positive Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy and Pelvic Lymphadenectomy,” The Lancet Oncology, Vol. 7, No. 6, 2006, pp. 472-479. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70700-8
 T. J. Wilt, R. MacDonald, I. Rutks, T. A. Shamliyan, B. C. Taylor and R. L. Kane, “Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness and Harms of Treatments for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 148, No. 6, 2008, pp. 435-448.
 M. Roach, K. Bae, J. Speight, H. B. Wolkov, P. Rubin, R. J. Lee, C. Lawton, R. Valicenti, D. Grignon and M. V. Pilepich, “Short-Term Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results of RTOG 8610,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2008, pp. 585-591. doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.13.9881
 L. Holmberg, A. Bill-Axelson, F. Helgesen, J. O. Salo, P. Folmerz, M. Haggman, S. O. Andersson, A. Sp?ngberg, C. Busch, S. Nordling, J. Palmgren, H. O. Adami, J. E. Johansson and B. J. Norlén, “Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study No. 4. A Randomized Trial Comparing Radical Prostatectomy with Watchful Waiting in Early Prostate Cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 347, No. 11, 2002, pp. 781-789. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa012794
 S. Kumar, M. Shelley, C. Harrison, B. Coles, T. J. Wilt and M. Mason, “Neo-Adjuvant and Adjuvant Hormone Therapy for Localised and Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 18, No. 4, 2006, Article ID: CD006019.
 A. Pollack, D. A. Kuban and G. K. Zagars, “Impact of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Survival in Men Treated with Radiation for Prostate Cancer,” Urology, Vol. 60, Suppl. 1, 2002, pp. 22-30. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01564-9
 B. J. Patel, A. J. Pantuck, A. Zisman, K. H. Tsui, S. H. Paik, R. Caliliw, S. Sheriff, L. Wu, J. B. de Kernion, C. L. Tso, and A. S. Belldegrun, “CL1-GFP: An Androgen Independent Metastatic Tumor Model for Prostate Cancer,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 164, No. 4, 2000, pp. 1420-1425. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67210-2
 C. L. Tso, W. H. McBride, J. Sun, B. Patel, K. H. Tsui, S. H. Paik, B. Gitlitz, R. Caliliw, A. van Ophoven, L. Wu, J. de Kernion and A. Belldegrun, “Androgen Deprivation Induces Selective Outgrowth of Aggressive Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Clones Expressing Distinct Cellular and Molecular Properties Not Present in Parental Androgen-Dependent Cancer Cells,” The Cancer Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2000, pp. 220-233.
 S. J. Freedland, A. J. Pantuck, P S. H. aik, A. Zisman, T. G. Graeber, D. Eisenberg, W. H. McBride, D. Nguyen, C. L. Tso and A. S. Belldegrun, “Heterogeneity of Molecular Targets on Clonal Cancer Lines Derived from a Novel Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer Tumor System,” The Prostate, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2003, pp. 299-307. doi:10.1002/pros.10226
 J. R. Zhou, L. Yu, L. F. Zerbini, T. A. Libermann, G. L. Blackburn, “Progression to Androgen-Independent LNCaP Human Prostate Tumors: Cellular and Molecular Alterations,” International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 110, No. 6, 2004, pp. 800-806. doi:10.1002/ijc.20206
 J. K. Oosterhoff, J. A. Grootegoed and L. J. Blok, “Expression Profiling of Androgen-Dependent and -Independent LNCaP Cells: EGF versus Androgen Signalling,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2005, pp. 135- 148. doi:10.1515/IJDHD.2005.4.2.77
 N. J. Nesslinger, X. B. Shi and R. W.de Vere White, “Androgen-Independent Growth of LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells Is Mediated by Gain-of-Function Mutant p53,” Cancer Research, Vol. 83, No. 9, 2003, pp. 2228-2233.
 A. T. Collins, P. A. Berry, C. Hyde, M. J. Stower and N. J. Maitland, “Prospective Identification of Tumorigenic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells,” Cancer Research, Vol. 65, No. 23, 2005, pp. 10946-10951. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2018
 F. M. Sirotnak, Y. She, N. Z. Khokhar, P. Hayes, W. Gerald and H. I. Scher, “Microarray Analysis of Prostate Cancer Progression to Reduced Androgen Dependence: Studies in Unique Models Contrasts Early and Late Molecular Events,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2004, pp. 150-163. doi:10.1002/mc.20051
 A. P. Singh, S. Bafna, K. Chaudhary, G. Venkatraman, L. Smith, J. D. Eudy, S. L. Johansson, M. F. Lin and S. K. Batra, “Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Reveals Transcriptomic Variation and Perturbed Gene Networks in Androgen-Dependent and Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Letters, Vol. 259, No. 1, 2008, pp. 28-38. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.09.018
 K. J. Pienta and D. Bradley, “Mechanisms Underlying the Development of Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 12, No. 6, 2006, pp. 1665-1671. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0067
 H. K. Tsai, A. V. D’Amico, N. Sadetsky, M. H. Chenand and P. R. Carroll, “Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer and the Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality,” Journal of National Cancer Institute, Vol. 99, No. 20, 2007, pp. 1516-1524.doi:10.1093/jnci/djm168
 A. J. Raffo, H. Perlman, M. W. Chen, M. L. Day, J. S. Streitman and R. Buttyan, “Over Expression of bcl-2 Protects Prostate Cancer Cells from Apoptosis in Vitro and Confers Resistance to Androgen Depletion in Vivo,” Cancer Research, Vol. 55, No. 19, 1995, pp. 4438-4445.
 R. J. Jin, Y. Wang, N. Masumori, K. Ishii, T. Tsukamoto, S. B. Shappell, S. W. Hayward, S. Kasper and R. J. Matusik, “NE-10 Neuroendocrine Cancer Promotes the LNCaP Xenograft Growth in Castrated Mice,” Cancer Research, Vol. 64, No. 15, 2004, pp. 5489-5495. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-03-3117
 M. W. Dewhirst, Y. Cao and B. Moeller, “Cycling Hypoxia and Free Radicals Regulate Angiogenesis and Radiotherapy Response,” Nature Reviews Cancer, Vol. 8, No. 8, 2008, pp. 425-437. doi:10.1038/nrc2397