ABSTRACT The crystallization kinetics of glassy Se and binary Se98M2 (M=Ag, Cd, Zn) alloys have been studied at different heating rates (5, 10, 15, 20 Kmin-1) using Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) technique. The crystallization temperature (Tc) is determined from exothermic peak obtained in DSC scans of present samples. The variation in peak crystallization temperature (Tc) with the heating rate (β) has been used to investigate the growth kinetics using Kissinger, Augis-Bennet and Matusita-Sakka models. The activation energy of crystallization (Ec) has been found to increase with Ag additive and to decrease with Zn and Cd additive. The value of various kinetic parameters such as rate constant (Kp), Avrami index (n), thermal stability (S) and Hruby number (Hr) have been calculated under non-isothermal mode. The maximum change in different kinetic parameters has been found after the incorporation of Ag additive.
Cite this paper
C. Dohare and N. Mehta, "Investigation of Crystallization Kinetics in Glassy Se and Binary Se98M2 (M=Ag, Cd, Zn) Alloys Using DSC Technique in Non-Isothermal Mode," Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 167-174. doi: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.24025.
 T. Ohta, “Phase-Change Optical Memory Promotes the DVD Optical Disc,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2001, pp. 609-626.
 M. Andriesh, M. S. Lovu and S. D. Shutov, “Chalcogenide Non-Crystalline Semiconductors in Optoelectronics,” Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2002, pp. 631-647.
 J. Keirsse, C. Boussard-Pledel, O. Loreal, O. Sire, B. Bureau, P. Leroyer, B. Turlin and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide Glass Fibers Used in Bio-Sensors,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 326, 2003, pp. 430-433.
 S. Kumar and K. Singh, “Glass Transition Thermal Stability and Glass Forming Tendency of Se90-xTe5Sn5Inx Multi-Component Chalcogenide Glasses,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 528, 2012, pp. 32-37.
 M. Popescu, “Disorder chalcogenide optoelectro-nic materials: Phenomena and Application,”J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater., Vol. 7, 2005, pp. 2189-2210.
 K. Tanaka, “Chalcogenide Glasses—In Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology,” Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, 2001, p. 1123.
 Ahmad, S. A. Khan, A. A. Al-Ghamdi, F. A. Al-Agel, K. Sinha, M. Zulfequar and M. Husain, “Kinetic of NonIsothermal Crystallization of Ternary Se80-xTe20Znx,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 497, 2010, pp. 215-220. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.03.015
 S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reversible Electrical Switching Phenomena in Disordered Structures,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 21, No. 20, 1968, pp. 1450-1453.
 S. D. Kaloshkin and I. A. Tomilin, “The Crystallization Kinetics of Amorphous Alloys,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 280-281, 1996, pp. 303-317.
 P. Pradeep, N. S. Saxena, M. P. Saxena and A. Kumar, “Isothermal Crystallization Study of Se70Te28Cd2 Chalcogenide Glasses,” Physica Scripta, Vol. 54, No. 2, 1996, pp. 207-209. doi:10.1088/0031-8949/54/2/016
 M. B. El-Den, “Study of Hardness and Crystallization Kinetics Due to Addition of Metals in SSe20 Chalcogenide Glasses,” Egyptian Journal of Solids, Vol. 24, 2001, pp. 171-179.
 S. P Singh, S. Kumar and A. Kumar, “Effect of Impurity (Sb and Ag) Incorporation on the a.c. Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of a-Se70Te30 Glassy Alloy,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 407, No. 3, 2012, pp. 457-463. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2011.11.014
 M. A. M. Khan, S. Kumar, M. W. Khan, M. Husain and M. Zulfequar, “Electrical Transport Mechanisms in Glassy Se95M5 (M=Ga, Sb, Bi),” Materials Research Bulletin, Vol. 45, No. 6, 2010, pp. 727-732.
 J. Sharma and A. Kumar, “Effect of Impurity (Sb and Ag) Incorporation on the a.c. Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Glassy Se70Te30 Glassy Alloy,” Physica B: Condensed Matter, Vol. 407, 2012, pp. 457-463.
 C. Dohare, N. Mehta and A. Kumar, “Effect of Some Metallic Additives (Ag, Cd, Zn) on the Crystallization Kinetics of Glassy Se70Te30 Alloy,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 127, 2011, pp. 208-213
 W. A. Johnson and R. F. Mehl, “Reaction Kinetics in Processes of Nucleation and Growth,” Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 135, 1939, pp. 416-442.
 M. Avrami, “Kinetics of Phase Change I,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 7, 1939, pp. 1103-1112.
 M. Avrami, “Kinetics of Phase Change II,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1940, pp. 212-224.
 H. E. Kissinger, “Reaction Kinetics in Differential Thermal Analysis,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 29, No. 11, 1957, pp. 1702-1706. doi:10.1021/ac60131a045
 K. Matusita and S. Sakka, “Kinetic Study of the Crystallization of Glass by Differential Scanning Calorimetry,” Physics and Chemistry of Glasses, Vol. 20, 1979, pp. 81-84.
 K. Matusita, S. Sakka, “Study of Non-Isothermal Crystallization of Glass by Thermal Analysis,” Bulletin of the Institute for Chemical Research, Vol. 59, No. 3, 1981, pp. 159-171.
 T. Ozawa, “Kinetic Analysis of Derivative Curves in Thermal Analysis,” Journal of Thermal Analysis, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1970, pp. 301-324. doi:10.1007/BF01690134
 J. A. Augis and J. E. Bennett, “Calculation of the Avrami Parameters for Heterogeneous Solid State Reactions Using a Modification of the Kissinger Method,” Journal of Thermal Analysis, Vol. 13, 1978, pp. 283-292.
 M. Saad and M. Poulin, “Glass Forming Ability Criteria,” Materials Science Forum, Vol. 19-20, 1987, pp. 11-18.
 Hruby, “Evaluation of Glass Forming Tendency by Means of DTA,” Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, Section B, Vol. 22, 1972, pp. 1187-1193
 Y. Q. Gao and W. Wang, “On the Activation Energy of Crystallization in Metallic Glasses,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 81, No. 1-2, 1986, pp. 129-134.
 K. Matusita, T. Konatsu and R. Yokota, “Kinetics of Non-Isothermal Crystallization Process and Activation Energy for Crystal Growth in Amorphous Materials,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol.19, 1984, pp. 291-296.
 J. W. Christian, “The Theory of Transformation in Metals and Alloys,” 2nd Edition, Pergamon, New York, 1971.