Convergent Calculations That Dark Solutions Are Reflective of Mass-Energy yet to Occur

ABSTRACT

The discrepancy between the observed and expected estimates from universal constants of mass-energy within the universe is in the order of a factor of ~10. Discrepancies between numerical solutions between the models of Dirac, Szydowski-Godlowski, and Friedman could be accommodated by the gnomonic solution of 0.44 for a square that displays both linearity and curvature (flare). This value is also reflected in dimensionless parameter A, the term for 4D-G (gravitational constant) transformation, and the optimal k in Friedman’s universe. One interpretation from G? (density), as-suming an effective average mass of 1 proton/m3 as a universal, one-particle force, is that dark solutions reflect the matter yet to occur in the open cold matter model of ~90 billion years.

The discrepancy between the observed and expected estimates from universal constants of mass-energy within the universe is in the order of a factor of ~10. Discrepancies between numerical solutions between the models of Dirac, Szydowski-Godlowski, and Friedman could be accommodated by the gnomonic solution of 0.44 for a square that displays both linearity and curvature (flare). This value is also reflected in dimensionless parameter A, the term for 4D-G (gravitational constant) transformation, and the optimal k in Friedman’s universe. One interpretation from G? (density), as-suming an effective average mass of 1 proton/m3 as a universal, one-particle force, is that dark solutions reflect the matter yet to occur in the open cold matter model of ~90 billion years.

Cite this paper

M. Persinger, "Convergent Calculations That Dark Solutions Are Reflective of Mass-Energy yet to Occur,"*International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics*, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 125-128. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2012.23017.

M. Persinger, "Convergent Calculations That Dark Solutions Are Reflective of Mass-Energy yet to Occur,"

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[1] A. B. Balakin, D. Pavon, D. J. Schwarz and W. Zimdahl, “Curvature Force and Dark Energy,” New Journal of Physics, Vol. 5, 2003, pp. 85.1-85.14.

[2] P. Wu and H. Yu, “Reconstructing the Properties of Dark Energy from Recent Observations,” Journal of Cosmo- logy and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 1-13.

[3] P. Dirac, “The principles of quantum mechanics,” Oxford Press, Oxford, 1947.

[4] M. A. Persinger, “A Simple Estimate of the Mass of the Universe: Dimensionaless Parameter A and the Construct of ‘Pressure’,” Journal of Physics, Astrophysics and Physical Cosmology, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2009, pp. 1-3.

[5] M. Szydlowski and W. Godlowski, “Acceleration of the Universe Driven by Casimir Force,” International Journal of Modern Physics D, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2008, pp. 343- 366. doi:10.1142/S021827180801205X

[6] Y. Hoffman, O. Lahav, G. Yepes and Y. Dover, “The Future of the Local Large Scale Universe: The Roles of Dark Matter and Dark Energy,” Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 1-16.

[7] V. Petkov, “On the Reality of Minkowski Space,” Foun- dations of Physics, Vol. 37, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1499-1502.doi:10.1007/s10701-007-9178-9

[8] H. Cheng, “The Asymptotic Behavior of Casimir Force in the Presence of Compactified Universal Extra Dimensions,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 643, No. 6, 2006, pp. 311- 314.doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2006.10.051

[9] M. Y. Konstantinov, “Topological Transitions and Large- Scale Structure of Space-Time in Multidimensional Theory of Gravity,” Russian Physics Journal, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1997, pp. 124-128. doi:10.1007/BF02806177

[10] J. Audretsch, “Riemannian Structure of Space-Time as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics,” Physics Review D, Vol. 27, No. 12, 1983, pp. 2872-2883.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.27.2872

[11] L. P. Eisenhart, “A Unified Theory of General Relativity of Gravitation and Electromagnetism. IV,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 43, No. 4, 1957, pp. 333-336. doi:10.1073/pnas.43.4.333

[12] M. J. Gazele, “Gnomon,” Princeton U. Press, Princeton, 1999.

[13] M. A. Persinger, “On the Nature of Space-Time Perception of Phenomena in Science,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 89, 1999, pp. 1210-1216.

[14] T. Ponman, “The Matter with Density,” Science, Vol. 414, 2001, pp. 402-404.

[15] M. Bordag, U. Mohideen and V. M. Mostepanenko, “New Developments in the Casimir Effect,” Physics Reports, Vol. 353, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 1-205.doi:10.1016/S0370-1573(01)00015-1

[16] S. A. Koren and M. A. Persinger, “The Casimir Force along the Universal Boundary: Quantitative Solutions and Implications,” Journal of Physics, Astrophysics and Phy- sical Cosmology, Vol. 4. No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-5.

[17] Y. P. Varshni, “The Red Shift Hypothesis for Quasars: Is the Earth the Center of the Universe?” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1976, pp. 3-8.doi:10.1007/BF00640549

[18] H. E. Puthoff, “Gravity as Zero-Point-Fluctuation Force,” Physical Review A, Vol. 39, No. 5, 1989, pp. 2333-2342.doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.39.2333