ABSTRACT The discrepancy between the observed and expected estimates from universal constants of mass-energy within the universe is in the order of a factor of ~10. Discrepancies between numerical solutions between the models of Dirac, Szydowski-Godlowski, and Friedman could be accommodated by the gnomonic solution of 0.44 for a square that displays both linearity and curvature (flare). This value is also reflected in dimensionless parameter A, the term for 4D-G (gravitational constant) transformation, and the optimal k in Friedman’s universe. One interpretation from G? (density), as-suming an effective average mass of 1 proton/m3 as a universal, one-particle force, is that dark solutions reflect the matter yet to occur in the open cold matter model of ~90 billion years.
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