The Influence of Earthquakes on Open-Pit Slope Stability

ABSTRACT

Estimation of stability of natural slopes, embankments, dams and open-pit slopes during earthquakes are complex and non-linear problems, therefore physical modeling is used for decision of it. As a result of physical modeling the pattern of seismic vibrations impact based on the movement process of probable collapse prism delineated by the most stressed plane of sliding has been established. Particular recommendations on the basis of safety factors selection in seismoactive zones are given.

Estimation of stability of natural slopes, embankments, dams and open-pit slopes during earthquakes are complex and non-linear problems, therefore physical modeling is used for decision of it. As a result of physical modeling the pattern of seismic vibrations impact based on the movement process of probable collapse prism delineated by the most stressed plane of sliding has been established. Particular recommendations on the basis of safety factors selection in seismoactive zones are given.

Cite this paper

S. Tsirel, B. Zuev and A. Pavlovich, "The Influence of Earthquakes on Open-Pit Slope Stability,"*International Journal of Geosciences*, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2012, pp. 799-808. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2012.324081.

S. Tsirel, B. Zuev and A. Pavlovich, "The Influence of Earthquakes on Open-Pit Slope Stability,"

References

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[2] Università degli Studi di Milano, “Methodical Instructions for the Determination of Inclination Angles of Slopes, Pit Banks and Waste Banks of Open-Pits Being under Construction and Exploitation,” Leningrad, 1972, 165 p.

[3] Università degli Studi di Milano, “Methodical Instruc- tions for Calculation of Stability and Bearing Capacity of Pit Dumps,” Leningrad, 1987, 123 p.

[4] Università degli Studi di Milano, “Regulations for Support of Coal Open-Pit Slope Stability,” St. Petersburg, 1998, 208 p.

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[6] Hydro-Project, “Recommendations for Calculation of Stability of Rocky Slopes,” Moscow, 1986, 52 p.

[7] E. P. Yemelyanova, “Basic Regularities of Sliding Processes,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1972. 310 p.

[8] M. A. Revazov and T. K. Pustovoitova, “Account of Seismic Forces in Calculations of Open-Pit Slope Stability Located in Seismohazardous Zones,” Proceedings Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (VNIMI), No. 67, 1967, pp. 313-318.

[9] H. Z. Rasulov, “Seismoresistance of Ground Foundations,” Tashkent, 1984, 192 p.

[10] A. H. Sadykov, “Sliding Stability of Forest Slopes and Banks under Effects,” Ph.D. Thesis, Institute Seismology G. A. Mavlyanova Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, 2011, 19 p.

[11] O. A. Kusonsky and A. N. Gulyaev, “Possible Trigger Effects of Some Earthquakes of the Urals,” The Urals Geophysical Vestnik, No. 6, 2004, pp. 74-80.

[12] O. V. Zoteev, “Geomechanics: Educational Textbook,” UGGGA, Yekaterinburg, 1997, 128 p.

[13] Y. P. Astafyev, R. V. Popov and Y. M. Nikolashin, “Control of Rock Mass State in Surface Mining of Mineral Deposits,” High School, Kiev, 1986.

[14] P. S. Mironov, “Explosions and Seismic Safety of Constructions,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1973, 186 p.

[15] S. V. Medvedev, “Seimics of Mining Explosions,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1964, 188 p.

[16] S. K. Sarma and M. V. Bhave, “Critical Acceleration versus Static Factor of Safety in Stability Analysis of Earth Dams and Embankments,” Geotechnique, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1974, pp. 661-665. doi:10.1680/geot.1974.24.4.661

[17] M. E. Hynes-Griffin and A. G. Franklin, “Rationalizing the Seismic Coefficient Method,” Miscellaneous Paper GL-84-13, US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, 1984, 21 p.

[18] H. B. Seed, “Consideration in the Earthquake-Resistant Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams,” Geotechnique, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1979, pp. 215-263. doi:10.1680/geot.1979.29.3.215

[19] N. R. Morgenstern and V. E. Price, “The Analysis of the Stability of Generalized Slip Surfaces,” Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1965, pp.79-89. doi:10.1680/geot.1965.15.1.79

[20] N. M. Newmark, “Effects of Earthquakes on Dams and Embankments,” Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1965, pp. 139-159. doi:10.1680/geot.1965.15.2.139

[21] R. W. Jibson, “Predicting Earthquake-Induced Landslide Displacements Using Newmark’s Sliding Block Analysis,” Transportation Research Record 1411, 1993, 17 p.

[22] G. Saygili and E. M. Rathje, “Empirical Predictive Models for Earthquake-Induced Sliding Displacements of Slopes,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 6, 2008, pp. 790-803.

[23] J. D. Bray and T. Travasarou, “Simplified Procedure for Estimating Earthquake-Induced Deviatoric Slope Displacements,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 133, No. 4, 2007, pp. 381-392. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:4(381)

[24] S.-Yu Hsieh and C.-T. Lee, “Empirical Estimation of the Newmark Displacement from the Arias Intensity and Critical Acceleration,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 122, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 34-42. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.12.006

[25] J. Graham, “Methods of Stability Analysis,” In: D. Brundsen and D. B. Prior, Eds., Slope-Instability, Wiley, New York, 1984, pp. 523-602.

[26] D. Pradel, P. M. Smith, J. P. Stewart and G. Raad, “Case History of Landslide Movement during the Northridge Earthquake,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1360-1369. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:11(1360)

[27] V. S. Zakharov, D. A. Simonov and A. I. Koptev, “Computer Modeling of Seismogeneous Landslide Movements,” Electronic Scientific Edition “GEO Razrez”, No. 1, 2009, 24 p. http://georazrez.uni-dubna.ru/download/2009/03/Zakharov-CompModel_Seysmogennykh_Opolznevykh_Smescheny.pdf

[28] S. L. Kramer, “Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering,” Prentice-Hall, 1996. 694 p.

[29] S. L. Kramer and M. W. Smith, “Modified Newmark Model for Seismic Displacements of Compliant Slopes,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 7, 1997, pp. 635-644. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1997)123:7(635)

[30] N. Ambraseys and M. Srbulov, “Earthquake Induced Displacements of Slopes,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1995, pp. 59-71. doi:10.1016/0267-7261(94)00020-H

[31] A. M. Mochalov, “Prediction of Deformations of Open-Pit Slope by the Results of Observations and Modeling of Slopes,” Proceedings Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (VNIMI): Study and Prediction of Movements and Deformations of Rocks, Hydrogeomechanical Processes in Deposit Mining with Underground and Surface Methods, Leningrad, 1991, pp. 119-124.

[32] G. M. Lyakhov, “Principles of Dynamics of Explosive Waves in Ground and Rocks,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1974, 192 p.

[33] M. P. Mokhnachev and V. V. Pristash, “Dynamic Strength of Rocks,” Nauka, Moscow, 1982, 141 p.

[34] E. S. Romm, “Structural Models of Porous Space of Rocks,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Leningrad, 1985, 239 p.

[35] M. V. Rats and S. N. Chernyshov, “Fracturing and Properties of Fractured Rocks,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1970, 164 p.

[36] F. F. Antikaev and N. V. Shebalin, “Revision of Correlations between Level of Macroseismic Effect and Dynamic Parameters of Ground Movement,” Journal Problems of Engineering Seismology: Investigations on Seismic Hazard, No. 29, Nauka, 1988, pp. 98-108.

[37] V. V. Schteinberg, “Quantitative Characteristics of Ground Vibrations during Heavy Earthquakes,” In: Estimation of the Influence of Ground Conditions of Seismic Hazard, Nauka, 1988, pp. 12-35.

[38] A. M. Mochalov, “Estimation of Open-Pit Slope Stability by Observable Deformations,” Proceedings Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (VNIMI) Improvement of Methods for Calculation of Movements and Deformations of Rocks, Structures and Open-Pit Slopes in Coal Seam Mining under Complicated Geological-And-Mining Conditions, Leningrad, 1985, pp. 42-52.

[39] N. V. Shebalin, “Relationship between Magnitude and Intensity of Earthquakes Depending on Depth of Their Origin,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, No. 6, 1957, pp. 122-126.

[40] N. V. Shebalin, “Methods for the Use of Engineering-Seismological Data in the Seismic Zoning”. In: Seismic Zoning in the USSR, Part 1, Chapter 6, US Department of Commerce, Moscow, 1968.

[41] N. P. Abovsky, V. G. Sibgatulina and K. V. Simonov “Development of the System of Geotechnology for Seismic Resistant Construction under Different Complicated Geodynamic Ground Conditions,” The Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 2008, 172 p.

[42] V. I. Ulomov and S. A. Peretokin, “On Actuality of Standard Maps of Seismic Zoning of the Territory of Russian Federation,” Journal of Engineering Explorations, No. 1, 2010, pp. 44-53.

[1] “Construction in Seismic Zones,” GOSSTROI RUSSIA, Moscow, 2010, 88 p.

[2] Università degli Studi di Milano, “Methodical Instructions for the Determination of Inclination Angles of Slopes, Pit Banks and Waste Banks of Open-Pits Being under Construction and Exploitation,” Leningrad, 1972, 165 p.

[3] Università degli Studi di Milano, “Methodical Instruc- tions for Calculation of Stability and Bearing Capacity of Pit Dumps,” Leningrad, 1987, 123 p.

[4] Università degli Studi di Milano, “Regulations for Support of Coal Open-Pit Slope Stability,” St. Petersburg, 1998, 208 p.

[5] “Recommendations for Selection of Methods for Calculation of Safety Factor of Slope and Sliding Pressure,” Ministry of Mounting and Special Construction Works of Ukraine, TsBNTI, Moscow, 1986, 124 p.

[6] Hydro-Project, “Recommendations for Calculation of Stability of Rocky Slopes,” Moscow, 1986, 52 p.

[7] E. P. Yemelyanova, “Basic Regularities of Sliding Processes,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1972. 310 p.

[8] M. A. Revazov and T. K. Pustovoitova, “Account of Seismic Forces in Calculations of Open-Pit Slope Stability Located in Seismohazardous Zones,” Proceedings Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (VNIMI), No. 67, 1967, pp. 313-318.

[9] H. Z. Rasulov, “Seismoresistance of Ground Foundations,” Tashkent, 1984, 192 p.

[10] A. H. Sadykov, “Sliding Stability of Forest Slopes and Banks under Effects,” Ph.D. Thesis, Institute Seismology G. A. Mavlyanova Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, 2011, 19 p.

[11] O. A. Kusonsky and A. N. Gulyaev, “Possible Trigger Effects of Some Earthquakes of the Urals,” The Urals Geophysical Vestnik, No. 6, 2004, pp. 74-80.

[12] O. V. Zoteev, “Geomechanics: Educational Textbook,” UGGGA, Yekaterinburg, 1997, 128 p.

[13] Y. P. Astafyev, R. V. Popov and Y. M. Nikolashin, “Control of Rock Mass State in Surface Mining of Mineral Deposits,” High School, Kiev, 1986.

[14] P. S. Mironov, “Explosions and Seismic Safety of Constructions,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1973, 186 p.

[15] S. V. Medvedev, “Seimics of Mining Explosions,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1964, 188 p.

[16] S. K. Sarma and M. V. Bhave, “Critical Acceleration versus Static Factor of Safety in Stability Analysis of Earth Dams and Embankments,” Geotechnique, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1974, pp. 661-665. doi:10.1680/geot.1974.24.4.661

[17] M. E. Hynes-Griffin and A. G. Franklin, “Rationalizing the Seismic Coefficient Method,” Miscellaneous Paper GL-84-13, US Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, 1984, 21 p.

[18] H. B. Seed, “Consideration in the Earthquake-Resistant Design of Earth and Rockfill Dams,” Geotechnique, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1979, pp. 215-263. doi:10.1680/geot.1979.29.3.215

[19] N. R. Morgenstern and V. E. Price, “The Analysis of the Stability of Generalized Slip Surfaces,” Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1965, pp.79-89. doi:10.1680/geot.1965.15.1.79

[20] N. M. Newmark, “Effects of Earthquakes on Dams and Embankments,” Geotechnique, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1965, pp. 139-159. doi:10.1680/geot.1965.15.2.139

[21] R. W. Jibson, “Predicting Earthquake-Induced Landslide Displacements Using Newmark’s Sliding Block Analysis,” Transportation Research Record 1411, 1993, 17 p.

[22] G. Saygili and E. M. Rathje, “Empirical Predictive Models for Earthquake-Induced Sliding Displacements of Slopes,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 6, 2008, pp. 790-803.

[23] J. D. Bray and T. Travasarou, “Simplified Procedure for Estimating Earthquake-Induced Deviatoric Slope Displacements,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 133, No. 4, 2007, pp. 381-392. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2007)133:4(381)

[24] S.-Yu Hsieh and C.-T. Lee, “Empirical Estimation of the Newmark Displacement from the Arias Intensity and Critical Acceleration,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 122, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 34-42. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.12.006

[25] J. Graham, “Methods of Stability Analysis,” In: D. Brundsen and D. B. Prior, Eds., Slope-Instability, Wiley, New York, 1984, pp. 523-602.

[26] D. Pradel, P. M. Smith, J. P. Stewart and G. Raad, “Case History of Landslide Movement during the Northridge Earthquake,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 131, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1360-1369. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2005)131:11(1360)

[27] V. S. Zakharov, D. A. Simonov and A. I. Koptev, “Computer Modeling of Seismogeneous Landslide Movements,” Electronic Scientific Edition “GEO Razrez”, No. 1, 2009, 24 p. http://georazrez.uni-dubna.ru/download/2009/03/Zakharov-CompModel_Seysmogennykh_Opolznevykh_Smescheny.pdf

[28] S. L. Kramer, “Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering,” Prentice-Hall, 1996. 694 p.

[29] S. L. Kramer and M. W. Smith, “Modified Newmark Model for Seismic Displacements of Compliant Slopes,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 7, 1997, pp. 635-644. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(1997)123:7(635)

[30] N. Ambraseys and M. Srbulov, “Earthquake Induced Displacements of Slopes,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1995, pp. 59-71. doi:10.1016/0267-7261(94)00020-H

[31] A. M. Mochalov, “Prediction of Deformations of Open-Pit Slope by the Results of Observations and Modeling of Slopes,” Proceedings Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (VNIMI): Study and Prediction of Movements and Deformations of Rocks, Hydrogeomechanical Processes in Deposit Mining with Underground and Surface Methods, Leningrad, 1991, pp. 119-124.

[32] G. M. Lyakhov, “Principles of Dynamics of Explosive Waves in Ground and Rocks,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1974, 192 p.

[33] M. P. Mokhnachev and V. V. Pristash, “Dynamic Strength of Rocks,” Nauka, Moscow, 1982, 141 p.

[34] E. S. Romm, “Structural Models of Porous Space of Rocks,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Leningrad, 1985, 239 p.

[35] M. V. Rats and S. N. Chernyshov, “Fracturing and Properties of Fractured Rocks,” National Electric Drag Racing Association, Moscow, 1970, 164 p.

[36] F. F. Antikaev and N. V. Shebalin, “Revision of Correlations between Level of Macroseismic Effect and Dynamic Parameters of Ground Movement,” Journal Problems of Engineering Seismology: Investigations on Seismic Hazard, No. 29, Nauka, 1988, pp. 98-108.

[37] V. V. Schteinberg, “Quantitative Characteristics of Ground Vibrations during Heavy Earthquakes,” In: Estimation of the Influence of Ground Conditions of Seismic Hazard, Nauka, 1988, pp. 12-35.

[38] A. M. Mochalov, “Estimation of Open-Pit Slope Stability by Observable Deformations,” Proceedings Research Institute of Mining Geomechanics and Mine Surveying (VNIMI) Improvement of Methods for Calculation of Movements and Deformations of Rocks, Structures and Open-Pit Slopes in Coal Seam Mining under Complicated Geological-And-Mining Conditions, Leningrad, 1985, pp. 42-52.

[39] N. V. Shebalin, “Relationship between Magnitude and Intensity of Earthquakes Depending on Depth of Their Origin,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, No. 6, 1957, pp. 122-126.

[40] N. V. Shebalin, “Methods for the Use of Engineering-Seismological Data in the Seismic Zoning”. In: Seismic Zoning in the USSR, Part 1, Chapter 6, US Department of Commerce, Moscow, 1968.

[41] N. P. Abovsky, V. G. Sibgatulina and K. V. Simonov “Development of the System of Geotechnology for Seismic Resistant Construction under Different Complicated Geodynamic Ground Conditions,” The Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 2008, 172 p.

[42] V. I. Ulomov and S. A. Peretokin, “On Actuality of Standard Maps of Seismic Zoning of the Territory of Russian Federation,” Journal of Engineering Explorations, No. 1, 2010, pp. 44-53.