OJVM  Vol.2 No.3 , September 2012
Pharmacological Control of Estrus in Tropical Cattle, an Economical Assessment of Different Synchronization Protocols
Abstract: To compare the fertility results and to assess the cost-effectiveness of several synchronization protocols applied under the conditions of beef cattle enterprises in Colombia, 1658 multiparous zebu crossbred cows mostly Brahman and Nelore ranging between 2 - 6 parities were used. Five protocols of pharmacological treatments varying in hormones used, dosage and the time of application were tested. All cows were inseminated at 52 h by appointment. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken over 45 d after insemination by rectal palpation. The total cost per cow and the total cost per gestation, for each protocol, were calculated. Taking a herd of one-hundred cows as baseline for calculations, it was estimated the cost of the total amount of pregnancies possibly obtained in each protocol; then, the excess between the costs of a pregnant cow and the cost of a treated cow was estimated. Additionally, the costs due to cows empty after four services were calculated. A total of 874 pregnancies were registered (52.7%), with pregnancies per protocol varying between 46.9% and 66.2% (p < 005). The cost per treated cow, varied between $64.08 and $97.47 and the cost per gestation from $126.01 to $177.26, without association between the cost of the treatment and the pregnancy rate. Protocol A was the best cost-effective with the lowest additional costs, the lowest amount of open days (2107.7 to 2231.7 d) and IA straws (average = 134), with an additional costs of $6940.00. Synchronization of estrus using pharmacological products seems to have a place in the management of cattle; however, caution should be called upon a careful assessment both from the part of the farm and the professional in charge of the enterprise to avoid using the technique indiscriminatively thus propitiating the use of a method that might not be cost efficient.
Cite this paper: J. J. Molina, I. Molina, A. Jiménez, C. S. Galina and J. J. Romero, "Pharmacological Control of Estrus in Tropical Cattle, an Economical Assessment of Different Synchronization Protocols," Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 151-157. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2012.23024.

[1]   P. I. Rekwot, E. O. Oyedipe, E. Mukasa-Mugerwa, V. O. Sekoni, O. P. Akinpelumi and A. A. Anyam, “Fertility in Zebu Cattle (Bos Indicus) after Prostaglandin Administration and Artificial Insemination,” Veterinary Journal, Vol. 158, No. 1, 1999, pp. 53-58. doi:10.1053/tvjl.1998.0313

[2]   M. G. Diskin and J. M. Sreenan, “Expression and Detection of Oestrus in Cattle,” Reproduction and Nutrition Development, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2000, pp. 481-491. doi:10.1051/rnd:2000112

[3]   C. S. Galina and A. Orihuela, “The Detection of the Estrus in Cattle Raised under Tropical Conditions: What We Know and What We Need to Know,” Hormones and Behavior, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2007, pp. 32-38. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.03.025

[4]   A. Orihuela, “Some Factors Affecting the Behavioural Manifestation of Oestrus in Cattle: A Review,” Applied Animal Behavior, Science, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2000, pp. 1-16. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00139-8

[5]   G. A. Bo, P. S. Baruselli and M. F. Martínez, “Pattern and Manipulation of Follicular Development in Bos Indicus Cattle,” Animal Reproduction Science, Vol. 78, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 307-326. doi:10.1016/S0378-4320(03)00097-6

[6]   O. Gomes-de Sá Filho and J. L. Moraes-Vasconcelos, “Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments,” Veterinary Medicine International, Vol. 2011, No. 2011, 2011, Article ID 923053.

[7]   G. A. Bo, L. Cutaia, L. C. Peres, D. Pincinato, D. Mara?a and P. S. Baruselli, “Technologies for Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination and Their Influence on Reproductive Performance of Bos Indicus Cattle,” Society of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement, Vol. 64, 2007, pp. 223-236.

[8]   K. L. Macmillan, “Recent Advances in the Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation in Dairy Cows,” Journal of Reproduction Development, Vol. 56, 2010, pp. S42-S47.

[9]   B. A. Tenhagen, M. Drillich, R. Surholt and W. Heuwieser, “Comparison of Timed AI after Synchronized Ovulation to AI at Estrus: Reproductive and Economic Considerations,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2004, pp. 85-94. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73145-8

[10]   C. J. H. de Sousa and J. C. Ferrugem-Moraes, “Manual de Sincroniza??o de Cios em Ovinos e Bovinos,” Embrapa Pecuária Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1998.

[11]   P. A. Oltenacu, J. D. Ferguson and A. J. Lednor, “Economic Evaluation of Pregnancy Diagnosis in Dairy Cattle: A Decision Analysis Approach,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 73, No. 10, 1990, pp. 2826-2831. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78970-9

[12]   J. R. Pursley, M. C. Wiltbank, J. S. Stevenson, J. S. Ottobre, H. A. Garverick and L. L. Anderson, “Pregnancy Rates per Artificial Insemination for Cows and Heifers Inseminated at a Synchronized Ovulation or Synchronized Estrus,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 80, No. 2, 1997, pp. 295-300. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75937-X

[13]   U. Singh, N. K. Khurana and Inderjeet, “Plasma Progesterone Profiles and Fertility Status of Anestrus Zebu Cattle Treated with Norgestomet-Estradiol-eCG Regimen,” Theriogenology, Vol. 50, No. 8, 1998, pp. 1191-1199. doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(98)00219-2

[14]   R. Cortes, J. A. Orihuela and C. S. Galina, “Effect of Sexual Partners on the Oestrus Behaviour Response in Zebu Cattle (Bos Indicus) Following Synchronisation with a Progestagen (Synchromate B),” Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999, pp. 515-519.

[15]   M. C. Cordoba and P. M. Fricke, “Evaluation of Two Hormonal Protocols for Synchronization of Ovulation and Timed Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows Managed in Grazing-Based Dairies,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 84, No. 12, 2001, pp. 2700-2708. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74724-8

[16]   M. G. Maquivar, C. S. Galina, J. R. Galindo, S. Estrada, R. Molina and G. D. Mendoza, “Effect of Protein Supplementation on Reproductive and Productive Performance in Bos Indicus X Bos Taurus Heifers Raised in the Humid Tropics of Costa Rica,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2010, pp. 555-560. doi:10.1007/s11250-009-9470-0

[17]   S. A. Buttler, P. C. Atkinson, G. B. Boe-Hansen, B. M. Burns, K. Dawson, G. A. Bo and M. R. McGowan, “Pregnancy Rates after Fixed-Time Artificial Insemination of Brahman Heifers Treated to Synchronize Ovulation with Low-Dose Intravaginal Progesterone Releasing Devices, with or without eCG,” Theriogenology, Vol. 76, No. 8, 2011, pp. 1416-1423. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.06.010

[18]   P. S. Baruselli, E. L. Reis, M. O. Marques, L. F. Nasser and G. A. Bó, “The Use of Hormonal Treatments to Improve Reproductive Performance of Anestrous Beef Cattle in Tropical Climates,” Animal Reproduction Science, Vol. 82, 2004, pp. 479-486. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.025

[19]   C. S. Galina and G. H. Arthur, “Review of Cattle Reproduction in Tropics,” Animal Breeding Abstracts, Vol. 59, No. 9, 1990, pp. 805-813.

[20]   G. S. Díaz, C. S. Galina, C. H. Basurto and G. P. Ochoa, “Efecto de la Progesterona Natural con o sin la Adición de Benzoato de Estradiol Sobre la PresentacióN de Celo, OvulacióN y GestacióN en Animales Tipo Bos Indicus en el TróPico Mexicano,” Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002, pp. 235-244.

[21]   C. Landivar, C. S. Galina, A. Duchateau and P. Navarro-Fierro, “Fertility Trial in Zebu Cattle after a Natural or Controlled Oestrus with Prostaglandin F2 ? Comparing Natural Mating with Artificial Insemination,” Theriogenology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1985, pp. 421-429. doi:10.1016/0093-691X(85)90014-7

[22]   G. A. Bo, G. P. Adams, R. A. Pierson, H. E. Tribulo, M. Caccia and R. J. Mapletoft, “Follicular Wave Dynamics after Estradiol-17B Treatment of Heifers with or without a Progestogen Implant,” Theriogenology, Vol. 41, No. 8, 1994, pp. 1555-1569. doi:10.1016/0093-691X(94)90821-Y

[23]   J. E. Jefrisch and C. J. O′Neill, “Calving Rates in a Tropical Beef Herd after Treatment with a Synthetic Progestagen, Norgestomet, or a Protaglandin Analogue, Cloprostenol,” Australian Veterinarian Journal, Vol. 73, No. 3, 1996, pp. 98-102.

[24]   J. R. Baca, E. Pérez and C. S. Galina, “Comportamiento Reproductivo de Vacas Bos Taurus x Bos Indicus Bajo Programas de Inseminación Artificial a Estro Sincronizado y Natural en Condiciones del Trópico Seco de Costa Rica,” Veterinaria México, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1998, pp. 67-73.

[25]   J. N. Sales, J. B. Carvalho, G. A. Crepaldi, R. S. Cipriano, J. O. Jacomini, J. R. Maio, J. C. Souza, G. P. Nogueira and P. S. Baruselli, “Effects of Two Estradiol Esters (Benzoate and Cyprionate) on the Induction of Synchronized Ovulations in Bos Indicus Cows Submitted to a Timed Artificial Insemination Protocol,” Theriogenology, Vol. 78, No. 3, 2012, pp. 510-516. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.02.031

[26]   L. A. Werth, S. M. Azzam, M. K. Nielsen and J. E. Kinder, “Use of a Simulation Model to Evaluate the Influence of Reproductive Performance and Management Decisions on Net Income in Beef Production,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 69, No. 12, 1991, pp. 4710-4721.

[27]   P. A. Bolivar and J. G. Maldonado, “Análisis de Costos de Esquemas de Trasnferencia de Embriones Bovinos Utilizados en Colombia,” Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2008, pp. 351-364.

[28]   M. A. Alarcón, C. S. Galina, M. D. Corro and M. A. Asprón, “Embryo Transfer, a Useful Technique to Be Applied in Small Community Farms?” Tropical Animal Health and Production, Vol. 42, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1135-1141. doi:10.1007/s11250-010-9536-z