NS  Vol.2 No.7 , July 2010
Familial aggregation and heritability for cardiovascular risk factors: a family based study in Punjab, India
Abstract: Background: It is well established that the people with elevated SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR are more prone to cardiovascular disease. However, very few studies have focused on the amount of familial aggregation and heritability of these cardiovascular risk factors in Indian population. Therefore, purpose of this study was to investigate the familial aggregation of blood pressures with respect to certain anthropometric traits and to determine the relative roles of heredity in the etiology of SBP and DBP in a sample of families with three generations. Methods: The study has been conducted through house to house family study among three generations such as offspring, parent and grandparent in a scheduled caste community (Ramdasia) in Punjab. A total of 1400 individuals, constituting 380 families were surveyed for blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse pressure and anthropometric measurements to study familial aggregation and heritability for cardiovascular risk factors. The analysis represents a multivariate model which includes the each individual family data for estimation of familial correlation and heritability. Results: All risk factors showed positive familial correlation but magnitudes are different in va rious pairs of combination. Correlations generally are higher among genetically close relatives such as brothersisters or parentoffspring and are lower among spouses. The estimated heri tabilities were 22% for systolic and 27% for diastolic blood pressure, 19% for BMI and 17% for WHR. Conclusions: These results indicate a strong familial aggregation of cardiovascular risk factors such as SBP and DBP in this population and also showed that this familial influence can be detected from anthropometric mea surements and genetic closeness. Almost all anthropometric variables were found to be significant with blood pressures among three ge nerations.
Cite this paper: Kumar, R. and Doza, B. (2010) Familial aggregation and heritability for cardiovascular risk factors: a family based study in Punjab, India. Natural Science, 2, 732-736. doi: 10.4236/ns.2010.27091.

[1]   Yu, Z., Nissinen, A., Vartianen, E., Song, G., Guo, Z. and Tians, H. (2000) Changes cardiovascular risk factors in different socioeconomic groups: Seven years trends in Chinese Urban population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 54(9), 692696.

[2]   Badaruddoza and Afzal, M. (1999) Age specific difference in blood pressure among inbred and noninbred North Indian Children. Journal of Biosocial Science, 24(2), 177184.

[3]   Badaruddoza and Afzal, M. (2000) Trend of blood pressure in North Indian children. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 44(3), 304310.

[4]   Wang, X., Wang, B., Chen, C., Yang, J., Fang, Z., Zuckerman, B. and Xu, X. (1999) Familial aggregation of blood pressure in a rural Chinese community. American Journal of Epidemiology, 149(5), 412420.

[5]   Lasser, U. and Breckenkamp, J. (2005) Trends in risk factors control in Germany 19841998: High blood pressure and total cholesterol. European Journal of Public Health, 16(2), 217222.

[6]   Tomson, J. and Lip, G.Y.H. (2005) Blood pressure demographics, nature on nurture, gene or environment. BMC Medicine, 3(8), 38.

[7]   Badaruddoza and Kumar, R. (2009) Cardiovascular risk factor and familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables in a schedule caste population of Punjab. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 67(2), 111119.

[8]   Brand, F.N., Kiely, D.K., Kanel, W.B., et al. (1992) Family patterns of coronary heart disease mortality: The Framingham longevity study. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45(2), 169174.

[9]   Hopper, J.L. and Carlin, J.B. (1992) Familial aggregation of a disease consequent upon correlation between relatives in risk factors measured in continuous scale. Ame rican Journal of Epidemiology, 136(9), 11381147.

[10]   Knuiman, M.W., Divitini, M.L., Bartholomew, H.C. and Welborn, T.A. (1996) Spouse correlations in Cardiovacsular risk factors and the effect of marriage duration. American Journal of Epidemiology, 143(1), 4853.

[11]   Knuiman, M.W., Divitini, M.L., Welborn, T.A. and Bartholomew, H.C (1996) Familial correlations, cohabitation effects, and heritability for cardiovascular risk factors. Annals of Epidemiology, 6(3), 188194.

[12]   Fuentes, R.M., Notkola, I.L., Shemeikka, S., Tuomilehto, J. and Nissinen, A. (2000) Familial pressure: A population based family study in eastern Finland. Journal of Human Hypertension, 14(7), 441445.

[13]   Harrap, S.B., Stebbing, M., Hopper, J.L., Hoang, H.N. and Giles, G.G. (2000) Familial patterns of covariation for cardiovascular risk factors in adults: The Victorian family heart study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 152(8), 704715.

[14]   Knuiman, M.W., Jamrozik, K., Welborn, T.A., Divitini, M.L. and Whittal, D.E. (1995) Age and secular trends in risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Busselton. Australian Journal of Public Health, 19(4), 375385.

[15]   American Heart Association, (1981) Report of subcommittee of postgraduate education committee recommendations for human blood pressure determination of sphygmomanometer. Circulation, 64, 510A599B.

[16]   Pérusse, L., Rice, T., Bouchard, C., Vogler, G.P. and Roa, D.C. (1989) Cardiovascular risk factors in the French Canadian population. Resolution of genetic and familial environmental effects on blood pressure by using extensive information on environmental correlates. American Journal of Human Genetics, 45(2), 240251.

[17]   Singh, I.P. and Bhasin, M.K. (1968) Anthropometry, Kamla Raj Enterprises, Delhi.

[18]   Weiner, J.S. and Lourie, J.A. (1981) Practical Human Biology, Academic Press, London.

[19]   Tambs, K., Moum, T., Holmen, J., Eaves, J.L., Neale, M.C., LundLarsen, P.J. and N?ss, S. (1992) Genetic and environmental effects on blood pressure in a Norwegian sample. Genetic Epidemiology, 9(1), 1126.

[20]   Rice, T., Rao, R., Pérusse, L., Bouchard, C. and Rao, D.C. (2000) Tracking of familial resemblance for resting blood pressure over time in the Quebec family study. Human Biology, 72(3), 415431.

[21]   Jee, S.H., Suh, I., Won, S.Y. and Kim, M. (2002) Familial correlation and heritability for cardiovascular risk factors. Yonsei Medical Journal, 43(2), 160164.