ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orthodontic loading on the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in compressed gingiva. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were used with four rats as controls at day 0. In ten rats, corticotomy was performed on either left or right side and the re-maining side was served as control, and killed at 7 and 14 days. In the remaining ten rats, maxillary right and left first molars were moved orthodontically with a constant force of 20 g; appliance and appliance in conjunction with cortictomy (appliance-corticotomy) were sequentially alternated between left and right sides and euthanized at 7 and 14 days. Real time polymerase chain reactions of compressed gingiva excised from the euthanized rats was performed to measure mRNA expressions of IL-1α and TNF-α. Results: There were no significant differences in the expression of IL-1α between all the groups. On the other hand, TNF-α from the pressure side in the ap- pliance group and the appliance in conjunction with corticotomy group showed significant increase on the 7th day compared to that of either control or corticotomy group. Conclusions: Orthodontic loading induced the elevation of TNF-α in compressed gingiva
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