ABSTRACT Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis occurring predominantly in young children less than 5 years of age. Although imperfectly known, the aetiopathogenesis of KD would be secondary to immunological abnormalities that could constitute a favourable terrain for neoplasms. We report on a case in a 2-year-old girl who presented clinical manifestations compatible with Kawasaki disease complicated by coronary aneurysm. Aetiopathological investigations revealed M. pneumoniae infection as specific IgM were present in the serum (Elisa). The patient was initially treated by intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and aspirin to anti-inflammatory dose. Following a few days of desquamation, resolution of the symptomatology occurred. Four weeks later she developed disseminated tumorous syndrome. Lymph node biopsy revealed massive infiltration by large cells lymphomatous proliferation. Histologic and immunophenotypic findings were characteristic of ALK-1+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Four weeks later, the patient died from a severe nosocomial infection complicated by septic shock. Our observation is the first cases describing the association between anaplastic large cell lymphoma, KD and M. pneumoniae. Immunologic disorder due to KD and M. pneumoniae infection may play probably a central role for malignancy.
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