K. G. Beck and J. Sebastian, “Combining Mowing and Fall-Applied Herbicides to Control Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense),” Weed Technology, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2000, pp. 351-356. doi:10.1614/0890-037X(2000)014[0351:CMAFAH]2.0.CO;2
 J. Krueger-Mangold, R. L. Sheley and B. D. Roos, “Maintaining Plant Community Diversity in a Waterfowl Production Area by Controlling Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Using Glyphosate,” Weed Technology, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2002, pp. 457-463. doi:10.1614/0890-037X(2002)016[0457:MPCDIA]2.0.CO;2
 K. M. Norgaard, “The Politics of Invasive Weed Management: Gender, Race and Risk Perception in Rural California,” Rural Sociology, Vol. 72, No. 3, 2007, pp. 450-477. doi:10.1526/003601107781799263
 US Environmental Protection Agency, “Endangered Species Protection Bulletin,” 2011. http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/endanger/bulletins.htm
 J. Jacobs, J. Sciegienka and F. Menalled, “Ecology and Management of Canada Thistle [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.],” Invasive Species Technical Note MT-5, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Agriculture, Bozeman, 2006.
 J. Radhakrishnan, J. R. Teasdale and C. B. Coffman, “Agricultural Applications of Vinegar,” Proceedings of the 57th Annual Northeastern Weed Science Society Meeting, Baltimore, 6-9 January 2003, p. 63.
 C. C. Reed, D. L. Larson and J. L. Larson, “Canada Thistle Biological Control Agents on Two South Dakota Wildlife Refuges,” Natural Areas Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2006, pp. 47-52. doi:10.3375/0885-8608(2006)26[47:CTBCAO]2.0.CO;2
 Plant Conservation Alliance, “Canada Thistle,” 2011. http://www.nps.gov/plants/ALIEN/fact/ciar1.htm
 US Army Corps of Engineers, “Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Mechanical Control,” 2009. http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/emrrp/emris/emrishelp4b/ mowing_canada_thistle.htm
 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, “Canada Thistle,” 2004. http://dnr.wi.gov/invasives/fact/canada_thistle.htm
 C. Holen, H. Person, B. Holder, R. Severson and M. Halstvedt, “Canada Thistle Control on Conservation Reserve Program Land,” In: H. Kandel, R. Severson and P. Glogoza, Eds., Report: 2006 On-Farm Cropping Trials Northwest and West Central Minnesota, Crookston, 2007, pp. 35-36.
 F. P. Thrasher, C. S. Cooper and J. M. Hodgson, “Competition of Forage Species with Canada Thistle, as Affected by Irrigation and Nitrogen Levels,” Weeds, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1963, pp. 136-138. doi:10.2307/4040707
 R. F. Pywell, M. J. Hayes, J. B. Tallowin, K. J. Walker, W. R. Meek, C. Carvell, L. A. Warman and J. M. Bullock, “Minimizing Environmental Impacts of Grassland Weed Management: Can Cirsium arvense be Controlled Without Herbicides?” Grass and Forage Science, Vol. 65, No. 2, 2010, pp. 159-174. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2494.2010.00735.x
 A. J. Bicksler and J. B. Masiunas, “Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Suppression with Buckwheat or Sudangrass Cover Crops and Mowing,” Weed Technology, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009, pp. 556-563. doi:10.1614/WT-09-050.1
 R. L. Sheley and M. F. Carpinelli, “Creating Weed-Resistant Plant Communities Using Niche-Differentiated Nonnative Species,” Rangeland Ecology & Management, Vol. 58, No. 5, 2005, pp. 480-488. doi:10.2111/03-142.1
 A. J. Travnicek, R. G. Lym and C. Prosser, “Fall-Prescribed Burn and Spring-Applied Herbicide Effects on Canada Thistle Control and Soil Seedbank in a Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie,” Rangeland Ecology & Management, Vol. 58, No. 4, 2005, pp. 413-422. doi:10.2111/1551-5028(2005)058[0413:FBASHE]2.0.CO;2
 B. N. Ang, L. T. Kok, G. I. Holtzman and D. D. Wolf, “Competitive Growth of Canada Thistle, Tall Fescue, and Crownvetch in the Presence of a Thistle Defoliator, Cassida rubiginosa Muller (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae),” Biological Control, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1994, pp. 277-284. doi:10.1006/bcon.1994.1035
 M. G. Cripps, G. R. Edwards, G. W. Bourdot, D. J. Saville, H. L. Hinz and S. V. Fowler, “Effects of Pasture Competition and Specialist Herbivory on the Performance of Cirsium Arvense,” Biocontrol Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 6, 2010, pp. 641-656. doi:10.1080/09583151003695407
 L. G. Perry, S. A. Cronin and M. W. Paschke, “Native Cover Crops Suppress Exotic Annuals and Favor Native Perennials in a Greenhouse Competition Experiment,” Plant Ecology, Vol. 204, No. 2, 2009, pp. 247-259. doi:10.1007/s11258-009-9588-1
 US Department of Agriculture, “The PLANTS Database,” 2009. http://plants.usda.gov
 K. K. Rose, A. L. Hild, T. D. Whitson, D. W. Koch and L. Van Tassell, “Competitive Effects of Cool-Season Grasses on Reestablishment of Three Weed Species,” Weed Technology, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001, pp. 885-891. doi:10.1614/0890-037X(2001)015[0885:CEOCSG]2.0.CO;2
 R. G. Wilson, S. B. Orloff, D. L. Lancaster, D. W. Kirby and H. L. Carlson, “Integrating Herbicide Use and Perennial Grass Revegetation to Suppress Weeds in Noncrop Areas,” Invasive Plant Science and Management, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2010, pp. 81-92. doi:10.1614/IPSM-09-008.1
 K. G. Beck and J. Sebastian, “An Integrated Canada Thistle Management System Combining Mowing with Fall-Applied Herbicides,” Proceedings of the 46th Annual Western Society of Weed Science Meeting, Tucson, 9-11 March 1993, pp. 102-104.
 F. A. Welton, V. H. Morris and A. J. Hartzler, “Organic Food Reserves in Relation to the Eradication of Canada Thistles,” Technical Bulletin 441, University of Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Columbus, 1929.
 C. W. Grekul and E. W. Bork, “Fertilization Augments Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense L. Scop) Control in Temperate Pastures with Herbicides,” Crop Protection, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2007, pp. 668-676. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2006.06.005
 S. Kluth, A. Kruess and T. Tscharntke, “Influence of Mechanical Cutting and Pathogen Application on the Performance and Nutrient Storage of Cirsium arvense,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2003, pp. 334-343. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00807.x
 A. C. Arny, “Variations in the Organic Reserves in Underground Parts of Five Perennial Weeds from Late April to November,” Technical Bulletin 84, University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, St Paul, 1932.
 A. Ferrero-Serrano, T. R. Collier, A. L. Hild, B. A. Mealor and T. Smith, “Combined Impacts of Native Grass Competition and Introduced Weevil Herbivory on Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense),” Rangeland Ecology & Management, Vol. 61, No. 5, 2008, pp. 529-534. doi:10.2111/07-142R.1
 J. Friedli and S. Bacher, “Direct and Indirect Effects of a Shoot-Base Boring Weevil and Plant Competition on the Performance of Creeping Thistle, Cirsium arvense,” Biological Control, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2001, pp. 219-226. doi:10.1006/bcon.2001.0971
 L. M. Laurialt, R. E. Kirksey and D. M. VanLeeuwen, “Performance of Perennial Cool-Season Forage Grasses in Diverse Soil Moisture Environments, Southern High Plains, USA,” Crop Science, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2005, pp. 909-915. doi:10.2135/cropsci2004.0280
 W. W. Donald and T. Prato, “Efficacy and Economics of Herbicides for Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense) Control in No-Till Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum),” Weed Science, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1992, pp. 233-240.
 M. L. Pokorny, R. L. Sheley, C. A. Zabinski, R. E. Engel, T. J. Svejcar and J. J. Borkowski, “Plant Functional Group Diversity as a Mechanism for Invasion Resistance,” Restoration Ecology, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2005, pp. 448-459. doi:10.1111/j.1526-100X.2005.00056.x
 J. L. Funk, E. E. Cleland, K. N. Suding and E. S. Zavaleta, “Restoration Through Reassembly: Plant Traits and Invasion Resistance,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Vol. 23, No. 12, 2008, pp. 695-703. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.07.013