ABSTRACT Coexistence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic heart failure (CHF) define a recently recognized clinical entity known as cardio-renal syndrome. Sufficient evidence suggests that the two pathological conditions share common pathogenic etiology which is not yet fully defined. Superimposed anaemia is a common finding among patients suffering from cardio-renal syndrome. The combination of CKD, CHF and anaemia increase the probability of death by 6 times compared to normal individuals. Early attempts to restore anaemia either by iron supplementation, erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) or combination of the two have reported to improve quality of life, morbidity and mortality especially among patients treated by cardiologists. Recent publications of well controlled epidemiological studies failed to prove convincing beneficial effect of the above mentioned therapy moreover skepticism has raised concerning the safety of restoring anaemia among patients with cardio-renal syndrome as well as used medications. There are still unresolved problems concerning the definition of anaemia, by means of hemoglobin level among these patients, the target hemoglobin level and the therapeutic regimen of ESAs administration and iron supplementation. We need much more evidence in order to define an effective and safe treatment strategy correcting anaemia among patients with cardio-renal syndrome.
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