JMMCE  Vol.11 No.9 , September 2012
Multiple Response Optimization of Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Graphite Filled Carbon-Epoxy ComPosites Using Grey-Based Taguchi Approach
ABSTRACT
The three-body abrasive wear behaviour of carbon fabric reinforced epoxy (C-E) composites has been evaluated by the addition of graphite (G) particles as a secondary reinforcement. Three-body abrasive wear test were conducted using dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester as per ASTM G-65 with three process parameters load, abrading distance and filler content. To assess the abrasive wear behaviour of particulate filled C-E composites satisfying multiple performance measure, grey-based Taguchi approach has been adopted. The experiments were designed according to Taguchi’s orthogonal array (L?27). The grey relational analysis was applied to convert a multi response process optimization to a single response. Using analysis of variance, significant contributions of process parameters have been determined. The results indicate that the addition of graphite particles into C-E composite increased the wear resistance considerably. It was observed that highest wear resistance of C-E composite was achieved with incorporation of 10 wt. % of graphite filler. Results indicate that the filler content and grit size of abrasive paper were found to be the most significant factor which has influence on the abrasive wear of C-E composite. The worn surface features were examined through scanning electron microscope to probe the wear mechanism.

Cite this paper
K. Subbaya, N. Rajendra, Y. Varadarajan and B. Suresha, "Multiple Response Optimization of Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Graphite Filled Carbon-Epoxy ComPosites Using Grey-Based Taguchi Approach," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 11 No. 9, 2012, pp. 876-884. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.119082.
References
[1]   C.-P. Fung, “Manufacturing Process Optimization for Wear Property of Fiber Reinforced Polybutylene Tereph- thalate Composites with Grey Relational Analysis,” Wear, Vol. 254, No. 3-4, 2003, pp. 298-306. doi:10.1016/S0043-1648(03)00013-9

[2]   B. Suresha, G. Chandramohan and P. V. Mohanram, “Role of Fillers on Three Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Glass Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Polymer Composites, Vol. 10, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1106-1113. doi:10.1002/pc.20662

[3]   M. Cirino, K. Friedric and P. B. Pipes, “Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Abrasive Wear Behavior of Polymer Composite Materials,” Wear, Vol. 121, No. 2, 1998, pp. 127-135. doi:10.1016/0043-1648(88)90038-5

[4]   Z. Lu and A. M. Hager, “Recent Advances in Polymer Composites,” Tribology, Vol. 190, 1996, pp. 139-144.

[5]   A. A. El-Sayed, M. G. El-Sherbiny, A. S. Abo-EL-Ezz, G. A. Aggag, “Friction and Wear Properties of Polymeric Composite Materials for Bearing Applications,” Wear, Vol. 184, No. 1, 1995, pp. 45-53. doi:10.1016/0043-1648(94)06546-2

[6]   B. Suresha, Siddaramaiah, Kishor, S. Seetharamu, P. Sampath Kumaran, “Investigations on the Graphite Filler on Dry Sliding Wear and Abrasive Wear Behavior of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Wear, Vol. 267, No. 9-10, 2009, pp. 1405-1414.

[7]   H. W. Chang, “Correlation of Wear with Oxidation of Carbon-Carbon Composites,” Wear, Vol. 80, No. 9-10, 2009, pp. 7-14. doi:10.1016/0043-1648(82)90083-7

[8]   C. Lhymn, “Tribological Behavior of Unidirectional Polyphenylene Sulphide Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminate Composites,” Wear, Vol. 117, No. 2, 1987, pp. 343- 359.

[9]   B. S. Tripaty and M. J. Furey, “Tribological Behavior of Unidirectional Graphite Epoxy and Carbon-PEEK Composites,” Wear, Vol. 162, 1993, pp. 343-359.

[10]   J. K. Lancaster, “The Effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforcement on Friction and Wear of Polymer,” Applied Physics, Vol. 1, 1968, pp. 549-555.

[11]   P. B. Mody, T. W. Chan and K. Friedrich, “Effect of Testing Condition and Microstructures on the Sliding Wear of Graphite Fiber/Peek Matrix Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 23, No. 12, 1998, pp. 4319-4330. doi:10.1007/BF00551926

[12]   S. Chand, “Review Carbon Fibers for Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 35, No. 6, 2000, pp. 1303-1313. doi:10.1023/A:1004780301489

[13]   Y. J. Shi, X. Feng, H. Y. Wang and X. H. Lu, “Tribological Properties of PTFE Composites Filled with Surface Treated Carbon Fiber,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 42, No. 20, 2007, pp. 8465-8469. doi:10.1007/s10853-007-1767-7

[14]   J. Bijwe and R. Rattan, “Carbon Fabric Reinforced Polyetherimide Composite: Optimization of Fabric Content for Best Combination of Strength and Adhesive Wear Performance,” Wear, Vol. 262, 2007, pp. 749-758.

[15]   X. Cheng, Y. Xue and C. Xie, “Tribological Investigation of PTFE, Composite Filled with Lead and Rare Earth- Modified Glass Fiber,” Materials Letters, Vol. 57, 2003, pp. 2553-2557.

[16]   B. Suresha, Siddaramaih, Kishoe, S. Seetharamu and P. Sampathkumaran, “Influence of Graphite Filler on Dry Siding Wear of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Wear, Vol. 267, No. 9-10, pp. 1405-1414. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2009.01.026

[17]   B. Suresha, B. N. Ramesh, K. M. Subbaya, B. N. Ravikumar and G. Chandramohan, “Influence of Graphite Filler on Two Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Carbon Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composite,” Materials and Design, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1833-1841. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2009.11.006

[18]   B. Suresha, B. N. Ramesh, K. M. Subbaya and G. Chandramohan, “Mechanical and Three Body Abrasive Wear Behavior of Carbon Epoxy Composite with and Without Graphite Filler,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 44, No. 21, 2010, pp. 2509-2519. doi:10.1177/0021998310369589

[19]   Q. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Liu, Y. D. Huang, L. Liu and J. W. Bao, “The Effect of Carbon Fiber Surface Properties and Electron Beam Curing of Epoxy Resin Composites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 62, No. 3, 2002, pp. 331-337. doi:10.1016/S0266-3538(01)00222-6

[20]   W. Qin, Z. Q. Zhang and X. H. Wu, “Effect of Cold Plasma Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of RTM Component,” Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 19, 2003, pp. 281-286.

[21]   K. Anthony, “Composite Materials,” Journal of Ceramic Processing Research, Vol. 2, 2001, pp. 147-154.

[22]   M. Cirino, K. Friedrich and R. B. Pipes, “The Abrasive Wear Behavior of Continuous Fiber Polymer Composites,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 22, No. 7, 1987, pp. 235-247. doi:10.1007/BF01082134

[23]   X. H. Cheng, Y. J. Xue and C. Y. Xie, “Friction and Wear of Rare-Earth Modified Glass Fiber Filled PTFE Composites in Dry Reciprocating Sliding Motion with Impact Loads,” Wear, Vol. 253, No. 7-8, 2002, pp. 869- 877. doi:10.1016/S0043-1648(02)00217-X

[24]   G. Taguchi and S. Konishi, “Taguchi Methods: Orthogonal Arrays and Linear Graphs,” American Supplier Institute Inc., Dearborn, 1987.

[25]   G. Taguchi, “Introduction to Quality Engineering,” Asian Productivity, Tokyo, 1990.

[26]   ASTM D2583, “Standard Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastic by Means of a Barcol Impresser,” 2007.

[27]   ASTM G65, “Standard Test Method for Wear Testing with a Dry sand Abrasive Test Apparatus,” 2010.

[28]   A. Ravikiran, “Wear Quantification,” ASME, Vol. 122, 2000, pp. 650-656.

[29]   K. H. Zum Gahr, “Wear by Hard Particles,” Tribology international, Vol. 31, No. 10, 1998, pp. 587-596. doi:10.1016/S0301-679X(98)00079-6

[30]   S. S. Mahapatra and S. Datta, “A Grey Based Taguchi Method for Wear Assessment of Red Mud Filled Polyester Composites,” International Journal of Modeling and Optimization, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 80-88.

[31]   C. Hung, C.-L. Chang and L. Chen, “Applying Grey Relational Analysis to the Wender Evaluation Model,” International Journal of the Computer and the Internet and Management, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2003, pp. 45-53.

[32]   C.-L. Yang, “Optimizing the Glass Fiber Cutting Process Using the Taguchi Methods and Grey Relational Analysis,” New Journal of Glass and Ceramics, Vol. 1, 1987, pp. 13-19.

[33]   K. H. Chang and C. S. Wu, “A Grey Time Series Model on Forecasting the Chinese Near Year Effect in the Taiwan Stock Market,” Journal of Grey System, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996, pp. 235-260.

[34]   J. Deng, “Introduction to Grey System,” Journal of Grey System, Vol. 1, 1989, pp. 1-24.

[35]   J. Moran, E. Granada, J. L. Miguez and J. Poterio, “Use of Grey Relational Analysis to Asses and Optimize Small Biomass Boilers,” Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 87, No. 2, 2006, pp. 123-127.

[36]   S. Biswas and A. Satpathy, “Tribo Performance Analysis of Red Mud Filled Glass-Epoxy Composites Using Taguchi Experimental Design,” Materials and Design, Vol. 30, 2009, pp. 2841-2853.

[37]   Y. Kuo, T. Yang and G.-W. Huang, “The Use of Grey Based Taguchi Method for Optimizing Multiresponse Optimization Problems,” Engineering Optimization, Vol. 4, No. 6, 2008, pp. 517-528. doi:10.1080/03052150701857645

[38]   B. Suresha, G. Chandramohan, J. P. Prakash, V., Balusamy and K. Shankaranarayanasamy, “Role of Fillers on Friction and Slide Wear Characteristics in Glass-Epoxy Composite System,” Journal of Minerals Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2006, pp. 87-110.

 
 
Top