JMMCE  Vol.11 No.9 , September 2012
Application of Hooke & Jeeves Algorithm in Optimizing Fusion Zone Grain Size and Hardness of Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welded AISI 304L Sheets
ABSTRACT
AISI 304L is an austenitic Chromium-Nickel stainless steel offering the optimum combination of corrosion resistance, strength and ductility. These attributes make it a favorite for many mechanical components. The paper focuses on developing mathematical models to predict grain size and hardness of pulsed current micro plasma arc welded AISI 304L joints. Four factors, five level, central composite rotatable design matrix is used to optimize the number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by Response Surface Method (RSM) and its adequacy is checked by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique. By using the developed mathematical models, grain size and hardness of the weld joints can be predicted with 99% confidence level. The developed mathematical models have been optimized using Hooke and Jeeves algorithm to minimize grain size and maximize the hardness.

Cite this paper
K. Prasad, C. Rao and D. Rao, "Application of Hooke & Jeeves Algorithm in Optimizing Fusion Zone Grain Size and Hardness of Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welded AISI 304L Sheets," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 11 No. 9, 2012, pp. 869-875. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2012.119081.
References
[1]   M. Balasubramanian, V. Jayabalan and V. Balasubramanian, “Effect of Process Parameters of Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas Welding on Weld Pool Geometry of Titanium Welds,” Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters), Vol. 23, No. 4, 2010, pp. 312-320.

[2]   B. Balasubramanian, V. Jayabalan and V Balasubramanian, “Optimizing the Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Parameters,” Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 22, No. 6, 2006, pp. 821-825.

[3]   R. G. Madusudhana, A. A. Gokhale and R. K. Prasad, “Weld Microstructure Refinement in a 1441 Grade Aluminium-Lithium Alloy,” Journal of Material Science, Vol. 32, No. 5, 1997, pp. 4117-4126. doi:10.1023/A:1018662126268

[4]   D. K. Zhang and J. T. Niu, “Application of Artificial Neural Network Modeling to Plasma Arc Welding of Aluminum Alloys,” Journal of Advanced Metallurgical Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2000, pp. 194-200.

[5]   S.-C. Chi and L.-C. Hsu, “A Fuzzy Radial Basis Function Neural Network for Predicting Multiple Quality Characteristics of Plasma Arc Welding,” 9th IFSA World Congress and 20th NAFIPS International Conference, Vol. 5, 2001, pp. 2807-2812.

[6]   Y. F. Hsiao, Y. S. Tarng and W. J. Huang, “Optimization of Plasma Arc Welding Parameters by Using the Taguchi Method with the Grey Relational Analysis,” Journal of Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2008, pp. 51-58. doi:10.1080/10426910701524527

[7]   K. Siva, N. Muragan and R. Logesh, “Optimization of Weld Bead Geometry in Plasma Transferred Arc Hardfacing Austenitic Stainless Steel Plates Using Genetic Algorithm,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 24-30. doi:10.1007/s00170-008-1451-3

[8]   A. K. Lakshinarayana, V. Balasubramanian, R. Varahamoorthy and S. Babu, “Predicted the Dilution of Plas- ma Transferred Arc Hardfacing of Stellite on Carbon Steel Using Response Surface Methodology,” Metals and Materials International, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2008, pp. 779- 789. doi:10.3365/met.mat.2008.12.779

[9]   V. Balasubramanian, A. K. Lakshminarayanan, R. Varahamoorthy and S. Babu, “Application of Response Surface Methodolody to Prediction of Dilution in Plasma Transferred Arc Hardfacing of Stainless Steel on Carbon Steel,” Science Direct, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2009, pp. 44-53.

[10]   E. Taban, A. Dhooge and E. Kaluc, “Plasma Arc Welding of Modified 12% Cr Stainless Steel,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 24, 2009, pp. 649-656.

[11]   N. Kahraman, M. Taskin, B. Gulenc and A. Durgutlu, “An investigation into the Effect of Welding Current on the Plasma Arc Welding of Pure Titanium,” Kovove Mater, Vol. 48, 2010, pp. 179-184.

[12]   N. Srimath and N Muragan, “Prediction and Optimization of Weld Bead Geometry of Plasma Transferred Arc Hardfacing Valve Seat Rings,” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 51, No. 2, 2011, pp. 285-298.

[13]   K. S. Prasad, C. S. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Prediction of Weld Quality in Plasma Arc Welding Using Statistical Approach,” International Journal of Science and Technology in Production and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1-7.

[14]   K. S. Prasad, Ch. S. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Optimizing Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welding Parameters to Maximize Ultimate Tensile Strength of Inconel 625 Nickel Alloy Using Response Surface Method,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011, pp. 226-236.

[15]   K. S. Prasad , Ch. S. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Prediction of Weld Pool Geometry in Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welding of SS304L Stainless Steel Sheets,” International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management & Applied Sciences & Technologies, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 325-336.

[16]   K. S. Prasad, Ch. S. Rao and D. N. Rao, “A Study on Weld Quality Characteristics of Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welding of SS304L Sheets,” International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management & Applied Sciences & Technologies, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2011, pp. 437-446.

[17]   K. S. Prasad, Ch. S. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Prediction of Weld Bead Geometry in Plasma Arc Welding using Factorial Design Approach,” Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 10, 2011, pp. 875-886.

[18]   K. S. Prasad, Ch. S. Rao and D. N. Rao, “Establishing Empirical Relationships to Predict Grain Size and Hardness of Pulsed Current Micro plasma Arc Welded Inconel 625 Sheets,” Journal of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2011, pp. 1-10.

[19]   D. C. Montgomery, “Design and Analysis of Experiments,” 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991, pp. 291-295.

[20]   G. E. P. Box, W. H. Hunter and J. S. Hunter, “Statistics for Experiments,” John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978, pp. 112-115.

[21]   S. Babu, T. S. Kumar and V. Balasubramanian, “Optimizing Pulsed Current Gas Tugsten Arc Welding Parameters of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy Using Hooke and Jeeves Algorithm,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 18, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1028-1036. doi:10.1016/S1003-6326(08)60176-4

[22]   W. G. Cochran and G. M. Cox, “Experimental Designs,” John Wiley & Sons Inc., London, 1957.

[23]   T. B. Barker, “Quality by Experimental Design,” ASQC Quality Press, Marcel Dekker, 1985.

[24]   W. P. Gardiner and G. Gettinby, “Experimental Design Techniques in Statistical Practice,” Horwood, Chichester, 1998.

[25]   D. Kalyanmoy, “Optimization for Engineering Design,” Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 1988.

 
 
Top