Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region

Affiliation(s)

Center for Oceans, Rivers, Atmosphere and Land Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India.

Fluidyn software and consultancy (P) Ltd., Bangalore, India.

Center for Oceans, Rivers, Atmosphere and Land Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India.

Fluidyn software and consultancy (P) Ltd., Bangalore, India.

ABSTRACT

The dispersion is mainly governed by wind field and depends on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. Accurate representation of the meteorological weather fields would improve the dispersion assessments. In urban areas representation of wind around the obstacles is not possible for the pollution dispersion studies using Gaussian based modeling studies. It is widely accepted that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools would provide reasonably good solution to produce the wind fields around the complex structures and other land scale elements. By keeping in view of the requirement for the micro-scale dispersion, a commercial CFD model PANACHE with PANEPR developed by Fluidyn is implemented to study the micro-scale dispersion of air pollution over an urban setup at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam a coastal station in the east coast of India under stable atmospheric conditions. Meso-scale module of the PANACHE model is integrated with the data generated at the site by IGCAR under RRE (Round Robin Exercise) program to develop the flow fields. Using this flow fields, CFD model is integrated to study the micro-scale dispersion. Various pollution dispersion scenarios are developed using hypothetical emission inventory during stably stratified conditions to understand the micro-scale dispersion over different locations of coastal urban set up in the IGCAR region of Kalpakkam.

The dispersion is mainly governed by wind field and depends on the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics. Accurate representation of the meteorological weather fields would improve the dispersion assessments. In urban areas representation of wind around the obstacles is not possible for the pollution dispersion studies using Gaussian based modeling studies. It is widely accepted that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools would provide reasonably good solution to produce the wind fields around the complex structures and other land scale elements. By keeping in view of the requirement for the micro-scale dispersion, a commercial CFD model PANACHE with PANEPR developed by Fluidyn is implemented to study the micro-scale dispersion of air pollution over an urban setup at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam a coastal station in the east coast of India under stable atmospheric conditions. Meso-scale module of the PANACHE model is integrated with the data generated at the site by IGCAR under RRE (Round Robin Exercise) program to develop the flow fields. Using this flow fields, CFD model is integrated to study the micro-scale dispersion. Various pollution dispersion scenarios are developed using hypothetical emission inventory during stably stratified conditions to understand the micro-scale dispersion over different locations of coastal urban set up in the IGCAR region of Kalpakkam.

Cite this paper

S. Madala, A. Satyanarayana and V. Prasad, "Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region,"*Open Journal of Air Pollution*, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2012, pp. 51-58. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2012.12007.

S. Madala, A. Satyanarayana and V. Prasad, "Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region,"

References

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[2] S. Murakami, R. Ooka, A. Mochida, S. Yoshida and S. Kim, “CFD Analysis of Wind Climate from Human Scale to Urban Scale,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Indus- trial Aerodynamics, Vol. 81, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 57-81. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00009-4

[3] U. Leenes and A. Pinhas, “The Coastal Boundary Layer and Air Pollution—A High Temporal Resolution Analysis in the East Mediterranean Coast,” Atmospheric Science Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012, pp. 9-18.

[4] R. B. Stull, “An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology,” Kluwer Publishers, New York, 1988, p. 666. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3027-8

[5] Z. Sorbjan, “Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1989.

[6] Venkatram, “Estimating Monin-Obukhov Length in the Stable Boundary Layer for Dispersion Calculations,” Boun- dary Layer Meteorology, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1980, pp. 481- 485.

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[11] B. Blocken and J. Carmeliet, “A Review of Wind-Driven Rain Research in Building Science,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1079-1130. doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2004.06.003

[12] G. T. Bitsuamlak, T. Stathopoulos and C. Bedard, “Numerical Evaluation of Wind Flow over Complex Terrain: Review,” Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2004, pp. 135-145. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0893-1321(2004)17:4(135)

[13] R. N. Meroney, “Wind Tunnel and Numerical Simulation of Pollution Dispersion: A Hybrid Approach (Working paper, Croucher Advanced Study Insitute on Wind Tunnel Modeling),” Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, 2004, p. 60.

[14] S. Reichrath and T. W. Davies, “Using CFD to Model the Internal Climate of Greenhouses: Past, Present and Future,” Agronomies, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2002, pp. 3-19.

[15] T. Stathopoulos, “Computational Wind Engineering: Past Achievements and Future Challenges,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 67-68, 1997, pp. 509-532. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(97)00097-4

[16] T. H. Shih, W. W. Liou, A. Shabbir, Z. Yang and J. Zhu, “A New k - ε Eddy Viscosity Model for High: Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows,” Computers & Fluids, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1995, pp. 227-238. doi:10.1016/0045-7930(94)00032-T

[17] R. Mathur and L. K. Peters, “Adjustment of Wind Fields for Application in Air Pollution Modeling,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1990, pp. 1095-1106.

[18] Fluidyn-PANACHE Technical Manual, 2009.

[19] B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “Turbulence Models and Their Application to the Prediction of Internal Flows,” Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1972, pp. 151-194.

[20] B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “The Numerical Compu- tation of Turbulent Flows,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1974, pp. 269- 289. doi:10.1016/0045-7825(74)90029-2

[21] C. W. Hirt, A. A. Amsden and J. L. Cook, “An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Computing Method for All Flow Speeds,” Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1974, pp. 227-253. doi:10.1016/0021-9991(74)90051-5

[22] N. R. Meroney, B. M. Leitl, S. Rafailidis and M. Schatzmann, “Wind-Tunnel and Numerical Modeling of Flow and Dispersion about Several Building Shapes,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 81, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 333-345. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00028-8

[23] G. Mellor and H. J. Herring, “A Survey of the Mean Turbulent Field Closure Models,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1973, pp. 590-599. doi:10.2514/3.6803

[1] Y. Anjaneyulu, C. V. Srinivas, D. Hariprasad, L. D. White, J. M. Baham, J. H. Young, R. Hughes, C. Patrick, M. G. Hardy and S. Swanier, “Simulation of Atmospheric Dispersion of Air-Borne Effluent Releases from Point Sources in Mississippi Gulf Coast with Different Meteorological Data,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2009, pp. 1055-1074. doi:10.3390/ijerph6031055

[2] S. Murakami, R. Ooka, A. Mochida, S. Yoshida and S. Kim, “CFD Analysis of Wind Climate from Human Scale to Urban Scale,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Indus- trial Aerodynamics, Vol. 81, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 57-81. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00009-4

[3] U. Leenes and A. Pinhas, “The Coastal Boundary Layer and Air Pollution—A High Temporal Resolution Analysis in the East Mediterranean Coast,” Atmospheric Science Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012, pp. 9-18.

[4] R. B. Stull, “An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology,” Kluwer Publishers, New York, 1988, p. 666. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3027-8

[5] Z. Sorbjan, “Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1989.

[6] Venkatram, “Estimating Monin-Obukhov Length in the Stable Boundary Layer for Dispersion Calculations,” Boun- dary Layer Meteorology, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1980, pp. 481- 485.

[7] D. B. Turner, “Workbook of Atmospheric Dispersion Esti- mates: An Introduction to Dispersion Modeling,” 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1994.

[8] M. Holtslag and A. P. Van Ulden, “A Simple Scheme for Daytime Estimates of surface fluxes from Routine Wea- ther Data,” Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 1983, pp. 517-529.

[9] A. Bass, “Modeling Long-Range Transport and Diffu- sion,” Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, New Orleans, 24-27 March 1980, pp. 193-215.

[10] M. R. Beychok, “Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion,” 4th Edition, 2005, p. 124.

[11] B. Blocken and J. Carmeliet, “A Review of Wind-Driven Rain Research in Building Science,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2004, pp. 1079-1130. doi:10.1016/j.jweia.2004.06.003

[12] G. T. Bitsuamlak, T. Stathopoulos and C. Bedard, “Numerical Evaluation of Wind Flow over Complex Terrain: Review,” Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2004, pp. 135-145. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0893-1321(2004)17:4(135)

[13] R. N. Meroney, “Wind Tunnel and Numerical Simulation of Pollution Dispersion: A Hybrid Approach (Working paper, Croucher Advanced Study Insitute on Wind Tunnel Modeling),” Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, 2004, p. 60.

[14] S. Reichrath and T. W. Davies, “Using CFD to Model the Internal Climate of Greenhouses: Past, Present and Future,” Agronomies, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2002, pp. 3-19.

[15] T. Stathopoulos, “Computational Wind Engineering: Past Achievements and Future Challenges,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 67-68, 1997, pp. 509-532. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(97)00097-4

[16] T. H. Shih, W. W. Liou, A. Shabbir, Z. Yang and J. Zhu, “A New k - ε Eddy Viscosity Model for High: Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows,” Computers & Fluids, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1995, pp. 227-238. doi:10.1016/0045-7930(94)00032-T

[17] R. Mathur and L. K. Peters, “Adjustment of Wind Fields for Application in Air Pollution Modeling,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1990, pp. 1095-1106.

[18] Fluidyn-PANACHE Technical Manual, 2009.

[19] B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “Turbulence Models and Their Application to the Prediction of Internal Flows,” Heat and Fluid Flow, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1972, pp. 151-194.

[20] B. E. Launder and D. B. Spalding, “The Numerical Compu- tation of Turbulent Flows,” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1974, pp. 269- 289. doi:10.1016/0045-7825(74)90029-2

[21] C. W. Hirt, A. A. Amsden and J. L. Cook, “An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Computing Method for All Flow Speeds,” Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1974, pp. 227-253. doi:10.1016/0021-9991(74)90051-5

[22] N. R. Meroney, B. M. Leitl, S. Rafailidis and M. Schatzmann, “Wind-Tunnel and Numerical Modeling of Flow and Dispersion about Several Building Shapes,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 81, No. 1-3, 1999, pp. 333-345. doi:10.1016/S0167-6105(99)00028-8

[23] G. Mellor and H. J. Herring, “A Survey of the Mean Turbulent Field Closure Models,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1973, pp. 590-599. doi:10.2514/3.6803