AiM  Vol.2 No.3 , September 2012
Growth and Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. and Conifer Pathogen Heterobasidion annosum s.l. in Vitro at Different Temperatures
ABSTRACT
Variations in the radial growth rate of 24 isolates belonging to ten species of Trichoderma, three isolates of conifer pathogen Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and four isolates of H. parviporum were evaluated by incubation on a solid malt extract medium at a temperature of 4℃, 15℃ and 21℃. Trichoderma antagonism against Heterobasidion was investigated in dual culture in vitro. The slowest rate of growth was referable to all seven strains of Heterobasidion spp. All Heterobasidion spp. strains were overgrown by 63% of Trichoderma spp. strains after two weeks at 21℃ and by 33% of strains at 15℃. 21% of Trichoderma strains did not grow and only four strains belonging to T. koningii, T. viride and T. viridescens demonstrated the ability to completely overgrow Heterobasidion spp. after two weeks incubation at 4℃. According to the antagonistic efficiency, Trichoderma strains were divided into five groups with an Euclidean distance of 25. The groups contained isolates from different species. It was suggested that selected psychrotrophic fast growing T. viride, T. koningii and T. viridescens strains could be examined in different substrate conditions as suitable antagonist agents for the control of H. annosum and H. parviporum.

Cite this paper
V. Nikolajeva, Z. Petrina, L. Vulfa, L. Alksne, D. Eze, L. Grantina, T. Gaitnieks and A. Lielpetere, "Growth and Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. and Conifer Pathogen Heterobasidion annosum s.l. in Vitro at Different Temperatures," Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 295-302. doi: 10.4236/aim.2012.23035.
References
[1]   F. O. Asiegbu, A. Adomas and J. Stenlid, “Conifer Root and Butt Rot Caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. s.l.,” Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2005, pp. 395-409. doi:10.1111/j.1364-3703.2005.00295.x

[2]   D. B. Redfern and J. Stenlid, “Spore Dispersal and Infection,” In: S. Woodward, J. Stenlid, R. Karjalainen and A. Hu?ttermann, Eds., Heterobasidion annosum: Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control, CAB International, Wallingford, 1998, pp. 105-124.

[3]   T. Piri and K. Korhonen, “The Effect of Winter Thinning on the Spread of Heterobasidion parviporum in Norway Spruce Stands,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 38, No. 10, 2008, pp. 2589-2595. doi:10.1139/X08-103

[4]   W. A. Sinclair and H. H. Lyon, “Diseases of Trees and Shrubs,” Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 2005.

[5]   J. Taubert, “Temperature Requirements for Germination of Conidiospores and Growth of Mycelia of Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Heterobasidion parviporum,” Master Thesis No. 123. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 2008. http://ex-epsilon.slu.se:8080/archive/ 00002863/01/Taubert_J_081006.pdf

[6]   N. Samils, A. Olson and J. Stenlid, “The Capacity in Heterobasidion annosum s.l. to Resist Overgrowth by the Biocontrol Agent Phlebiopsis gigantea is a Heritable Trait,” Biological Control, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2008, pp. 419-426. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.03.010

[7]   O. Holdenrieder and B. J. W. Greig, “Biological Methods of Control,” In: S. Woodward, J. Stenlid, R. Karjalainen and A. Hu?ttermann, Eds., Heterobasidion annosum: Biology, Ecology, Impact and Control, CAB International, Wallingford, 1998, pp. 235-258.

[8]   G. C. Papavizas, “Trichoderma and Gliocladium—Biology, Ecology, and Potential for Biocontrol,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1985, pp. 23-54. doi:10.1146/annurev.py.23.090185.000323

[9]   G. E. Harman, C. R. Howell, A. Viterbo, I. Chet and M. Lorito, “Trichoderma Species—Opportunistic, Avirulent Plant Symbionts,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2005, pp. 43-56. doi:10.1038/nrmicro797

[10]   Z. Sierota, “Influence of Acidity on the Growth of Trichoderma viride Pers. ex Fr. and on the Inhibitory Effect of its Filtrates Against Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke in Artificial Cultures,” European Journal of Forest Pathology, Vol. 6, No. 5, 1976, pp. 302-311. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.1976.tb00540.x

[11]   H. Kwa?na, “Fungi on the Surface of Roots of Scots Pine and its Stumps and their Effect on Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. and Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink Growth,” Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych Seria E, Ochrona Roslin, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1997, pp. 109-123.

[12]   O. Holdenrieder, “Investigations on Biological Control of Heterobasidion annosum in Norway Spruce (Picea abies) with Antagonistic Fungi. II. Interaction Experiments in Wood,” European Journal of Forest Pathology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1984, pp. 137-153. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.1984.tb00938.x

[13]   M. Werner, A. Werner and R. Andrzejak, “Antagonistic Effects of Some Fungi on Fusarium oxysporum and Heterobasidion annosum in Laboratory Experiment,” In: M. Manka, Ed., Environmental Biotic Factors in Integrated Plant Disease Control, The Polish Phytopathological Society, Poznan, 1995, pp. 611-616.

[14]   G. Nicolotti, P. Gonthier and G. C. Varese, “Effectiveness of Some Biocontrol and Chemical Treatments Against Heterobasidion annosum on Norway Spruce Stumps,” European Journal of Forest Pathology, Vol. 29, No. 5, 1999, pp. 339-346. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0329.1999.00159.x

[15]   M. Berglund, J. R?nnberg, L. Holmer and J. Stenlid, “Comparison of Five Strains of Phlebiopsis gigantea and two Trichoderma Formulations for Treatment Against Natural Heterobasidion Spore Infections on Norway Spruce Stumps,” Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp. 12-17. doi:10.1080/02827580510008202

[16]   A. Lehtij?rvi, H. T. Do?mu?-Lehtij?rvi, A. G. Aday and F. Oskay, “The Efficacy of Selected Biological and Chemical Control Agents Against Heterobasidion abietinum on Abies cilicica,” Forest Pathology, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2011. pp. 470-476. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2010.00705.x

[17]   A. Tronsmo and C. Dennis, “Effect of Temperature on Antagonistic Properties of Trichoderma Species,” Transactions of the British Mycological Society, Vol. 71, No. 3, 1978, pp. 469-474. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(78)80075-8

[18]   B. Goldfarb, E. E. Nelson and E. M. Hansen, “Trichoderma spp.: Growth Rates and Antagonism to Phellinus weirii in Vitro,” Mycologia, Vol. 81, No. 3, 1989, pp. 375-381. doi:10.2307/3760075

[19]   Z. Antal, L. Manczinger, G. Szakacs, R. P. Tengerdy and L. Ferenczy, “Colony Growth, in Vitro Antagonism and Selection of Extracellular Enzymes in Cold-Tolerant Strains of Trichoderma Species,” Mycological Research, Vol. 104, No. 5, 2000, pp. 545-549. doi:10.1017/S0953756299001653

[20]   M. Gardes and T. D. Bruns, “ITS Primers with Enhanced Specificity for Basidiomycetes—Application to the Identification of Mycorrhizae and Rusts,” Molecular Ecology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1993, pp. 113-118. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993.tb00005.x

[21]   T. J. White, T. Bruns, S. Lee and J. Taylor, “Amplification and Direct Sequencing of Fungal Ribosomal RNA Genes for Phylogenetics,” In: M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky and T. J. White, Eds., PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, San Diego, 1990, pp. 315-322.

[22]   A. Asran-Amal, K. A. Abd-Elsalam, M. R. Omar and A. A. Aly, “Antagonistic Potential of Trichoderma spp. Against Rhizoctonia solani and Use of M13 Microsatellite-Primed PCR to Evaluate the Antagonist Genetic Variation,” Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, Vol. 112, No. 6, 2005, pp. 550-561.

[23]   R. M. Danielson and C. B. Davey, “Non Nutritional Factors Affecting the Growth of Trichoderma in Culture,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1973, pp. 495-504. doi:10.1016/0038-0717(73)90039-4

[24]   Y. Yamazaki, M. Tojo, T. Hoshino, K. Kida, T. Sakamoto, et al., “Characterization of Trichoderma polysporum from Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, with Species Identity, Pathogenicity to Moss, and Polygalacturonase Activity,” Fungal Ecology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2011, pp. 15-21. doi:10.1016/j.funeco.2010.06.002

[25]   W. M. Jaklitsch, G. J. Samuel, S. L. Dodd, B. S. Lu and I. S. Druzhinina, “Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: A Reassessment, and Description of Five Closely Related Species with and without Warted Conidia,” Studies in Mycology, Vol. 55, No. 1, 2006, pp. 135-177. doi:10.3114/sim.2006.56.04

[26]   E. Lieckfeldt, G. J. Samuels, H. I. Nirenberg and O. Petrini, “A Morphological and Molecular Perspective of Trichoderma viride: Is It One or Two Species?” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 65, No. 6, 1999, pp. 2418-2428.

[27]   P. K. Mukherjee and K. Raghu, “Effect of Temperature on Antagonistic and Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma sp. on Sclerotium rolfsii,” Mycopathologia, Vol. 139, No. 3, 1997, pp. 151-155. doi:10.1023/A:1006868009184

[28]   C. Guigon-Lopez, E. Carvajal-Millan, N. P. de Leon- Renova, F. Vargas-Albores, L. Bravo-Luna and V. M. Guerrero-Prieto, “Microcalorimetric Measurement of Trichoderma spp. Growth at Different Temperatures,” Thermochimica Acta, Vol. 509, No. 1-2, 2010, pp. 40-45. doi:10.1016/j.tca.2010.05.018

[29]   J. K?hl and E. Schl?sser, “Decay of Sclerotia of Botrytis cinerea by Trichoderma spp. at Low Temperatures,” Journal of Phytopathology, Vol. 125, No. 4, 1989, pp. 320-326. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1989.tb01076.x

[30]   D. K. Bell, H. D. Wells and C. R. Markham, “In Vitro Antagonism of Trichoderma Species against Six Fungal Plant Pathogens,” Phytopathology, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1982, pp. 379-382. doi:10.1094/Phyto-72-379

[31]   A. Napierala-Filipiak and A. Werner, “Antagonism of Higher Fungi to Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. in Laboratory Conditions,” Dendrobiology, Vol. 45, 2000, pp. 65-81. http://www.idpan.poznan.pl/images/ stories/dendrobiology/vol45/45_65_81.pdf

 
 
Top