JEP  Vol.3 No.9 , September 2012
Mytilus galloprovincialis as Mussel Watch for Butyltins, Tin, Copper and Zinc Contamination, from Antifouling Paint Particles, in West Algerian Coastal Waters
Abstract: Butyltin compounds (BTs) including tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation product (DBT) and concentrations of heavy metals (Sn, Cu and Zn) were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from some West Algerian harbours. BTs were detected in all the mussels. Quanti?cation of BTs and heavy metals was carried respectively by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, flame AAS. Concentrations of total butyltin (BTs: DBT + TBT) in mussels ranged from 0.49 to 2438 ng/g wet wt. The concentrations (μg/g wet wt) of heavy metals ranged from 0.40 to 3.55 for Sn, 9.62 to 67.03 for Cu, and 87.13 to 731.51 for Zn. Total of tin in mussels ranged from 0.2 to 1054.78 ng/g. Higher concentrations of butyltin compounds were found in mussels collected from Mers El Kebir shipyard, Arzew, a petroleum harbour (industrial), and Beni Saf fishing harbour. This suggested that maritime activities nearby the harbours play a major role as the source of BTs. Indeed, harbour of Arzew is frequented by voluminous tanker. TBT was the predominant compound in mussels collected from almost all the sampling locations; indicate the fresh input of TBT in harbours.
Cite this paper: Z. Hadj, Z. Boutiba and B. Belbachir, "Mytilus galloprovincialis as Mussel Watch for Butyltins, Tin, Copper and Zinc Contamination, from Antifouling Paint Particles, in West Algerian Coastal Waters," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 1047-1053. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.39122.

[1]   C. J. Evans and S. Karpel, “Organotins Compounds in Modern Technology,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.

[2]   R. J. Maguire, “Review: Environmental Aspects of Tributyltin,” Applied Organometallic Chemistry, Vol. 1, No. 6, 1987, pp. 475-498. doi:10.1002/aoc.590010602

[3]   H. Rudel, “Case Study: Bioavailability of Tin and Tin Compounds,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2003, pp. 180-189. doi:10.1016/S0147-6513(03)00061-7

[4]   A. Sousa, C. Matsudaira, S. Takahashi, S. Tanabe and C. Barroso, “Integrative Assessment of Organotin Contamination in a Southern European Estuarine System (Ria de Aveiro, NW Portugal): Tracking Temporal Trends in Order to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the EU Ban,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 10, 2007, pp. 1645-1653. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2007.07.005

[5]   C. Alzieu, M. Héral, Y. Thibaud, M. J. Dardignac and M. Feuillet, “Influence des Peintures Antisalissures à Base d’Organstanniques sur la Calcification de la Coquille d’Hu?tre C. gigas,” Revue des Travaux de l’Institut des Pêches maritimes, Vol. 45, No. 2, 1981, pp. 101-116.

[6]   C. Alzieu, J. Sanjuan, J.-P. Deltreiland and M. Borel, “Tin Contamination in Arcachon Bay: Effects on Oyster Shells Anomalies,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 17, No. 11, 1986, pp. 494-498. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(86)90636-3

[7]   C. Alzieu, “Biological Effects of Tributyltin on Marine Organisms,” In: S. J. De Mora, Ed., Dans Tributylti: Case Study of an Environmental Contaminant, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 167-211. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511759772.007

[8]   G. W. Bryan and P. E. Gibbs, “Impact of Low Concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) on Marine Organisms: A Re- view,” In: M. C. Newman and A. W. McIntosh, Eds., Metal Ecotoxicology, Concepts and Applications, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, 1991.

[9]   P. E. Gibbs and G. W. Bryan, “TBT-Induced Imposex in Neogastropos Snail: Masculinization to Mass Extinction,” In: S. J. de Mora, Ed., Tributyltin: Case Study of an Environmental Contaminant, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 212-276. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511759772.008

[10]   T. Horiguchi and H. Shiraishi, “Imposex in Sea Snails, Caused by Organotin (Tributyltin and Triphenyltin) Pollution in Japan: A Survey,” Applied Organometallic Chem- istry, Vol. 11, No. 5, 1997, pp. 451-455. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0739(199705)11:5<451::AID-AOC598>3.0.CO;2-#

[11]   M. M. Santos, M. A. Reis-Henriques, M. N. Vieira and M. Solé, “Triphenyltin and Tributyltin, Single and in Combination, Promote Imposex in the Gastropod Bolinus brandaris,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2006, pp. 155-162. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.02.003

[12]   K. Fent, “Ecotoxicology of Organotin Compounds,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1996, pp. 1- 117. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.02.003

[13]   F. Grün,, H. Watanabe, Z. Zamanian, L. Maeda, K. Arima, R. Cubacha, D. M. Gardiner, J. Kanno, T. Iguchi and B. Blumberg, “Endocrine-Disrupting Organotin Compounds Are Potent Inducers of Adipogenesis in Vertebrates,” M lecular Endocrinology, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2006, pp. 2141-2155. doi:10.1210/me.2005-0367

[14]   C. Stewart, “The Efficiency of Legislation in Controlling Tributyltin in the Marine Environment,” In: S. J. de Mora Ed., Tributytltin: Case Study of an Environmental Contaminant, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996, pp. 264-297. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511759772.010

[15]   P. J. Graig, “Organometallics in the Environment: Principles and Reactions,” Longman, Harlow, 1986, p. 133.

[16]   A. P. Negri and A. J. Heyward, “Inhibition of Coral Fertilization and Larval Metamorphosis Bytributyltin and Copper,” Marine Environmental Research, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2001, pp. 17-27. doi:10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00029-5

[17]   A. J. Reichelt-Brushett and P. L. Harrison, “The Effect of Copper on the Settlement Success of Larvae from the Scleractinian Coral Acropora tenuis,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 7-12, 2000, pp. 385-391. doi:10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00029-5

[18]   A. J. Reichelt-Brushett and P. L. Harrison, “The Effect of Copper, Zinc and Cadmium on Fertilization Success of Gametes from Scleractinian Reef Corals,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 38, No. 3, 1999, pp. 182-187. doi:10.1016/S0025-326X(98)00183-0

[19]   A. Safahieh, F. A. Monikh, A. Savari and A. Doraghi, “Heavy Metals Concentration in Mullet Fish, Liza abu from Petrochemical Waste Receiving Creeks, Musa Estu- ary (Persian Gulf),” Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1218-1226. doi:10.4236/jep.2011.29140

[20]   H. Harino, M. Fukushima, Y. Yamamoto, S. Kawai and N. Miyazaki, “Organotin Compounds in Water, Sediment, and Biological Samples from the Port of Osaka, Japan,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1998, pp. 558-564. doi:10.1007/s002449900416

[21]   P. Quevauviller, M. Astruc, R. Morabito, F. Ariese and L. Ebdon, “Collaborative Evaluation of Methods for Tribu- tyltin Determinations in Sediment and Mussel Tissue,” TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 2-3, 2000, pp. 180-188. doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00203-4

[22]   Z-H. Yu, J-Q. Sun, M. Jing, X. Cao, F. Lee and X-R. Wang, “Determination of Total Tin and Organotin Com- pounds in Shell?sh by ICP-MS,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 119, No. 1, 2010, pp. 364-367. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.05.079

[23]   Z. Plzak, M. Polanská and M. Suchánek, “Identification and Determination of Butyltin Compounds in Water by Ion Trap Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after Conversion to Methyl or Hydride Derivatives,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 699, No. 1-2, 1995, pp. 241- 252. doi:10.1016/0021-9673(95)00071-T

[24]   C.-C. Chou and M.-R. Lee, “Determination of Organotin Compounds in Water by Headspace Solid Phase Micro- Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1064, No. 1, 2005, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.08.166

[25]   C. Devos, M. Vliegen, B. Willaert, F. David, L. Moens and P. Sandra, “Automated Headspace-Solid-Phase Micro Extraction-Retention Time Locked-Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Organotin Compounds in Water and Sediment Samples,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1079, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 408-414. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.12.020

[26]   M. üveges, P. Rodríguez-González, J. I. García, Alonso, A. Sanz-Medel and P. Fodor, “Isotope Dilution Analysis Mass Spectrometry for the Routine Measurement of Butyltin Compounds in Marine Environmental and Biological Samples,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 85, No. 1, 2007, pp. 115-121. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2006.04.003

[27]   J. Ashby, S. Clark and P. J. Craig, “Methods for the Pro- duction of volatile Organometallic Derivatives for Application to the Analysis of Environmental Samples”. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol. 3, No. 5, 1988, pp. 735-736. doi:10.1039/ja9880300735

[28]   R. Morabito, P. Massanisso and P. Quevauviller, “Deri- vatization Methods for the Determination of Organotin Compounds in Environmental Samples,” TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 2-3, 2000, pp. 113- 119. doi:10.1016/S0165-9936(99)00196-X

[29]   H. Harino, S. C. M. O’Hara, G. R. Burt, B. S. Chesman and W. J. Langston, “Distribution of Organotin Com- pounds in Tissues of Mussels Mytilus edulis and Clams Mya arenaria,” Chemosphere, Vol. 58, No. 7, 2005, pp. 877-881. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.10.012

[30]   C.-H. Tang, C.-H. Hsu and W.-H. Wang, “Butyltin Ac- cumulation in Marine Bivalves under Field Conditions in 2010, pp. 125-132. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.03.011

[31]   E. D. Goldberg, “The Mussel Watch,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 7, 1975, pp. 111-113. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(75)90271-4

[32]   H. Iwata, S. Tanabe, T. Mizuno and R. Tatsukawa, “High Accumulation of Toxic Butyltins in Marine Mammals from Japanese Coastal Waters,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 29, No. 12, 1995, pp. 2959-2962. doi:10.1021/es00012a011

[33]   J. A. St?b, M. Frenay, L. L. Freriks, U. A. T. H. Brinkman and W. P. Cofino, “Survey of Nine Organotin Compounds in the Netherlands Using the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena Polymorpha) as Biomonitor,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 14, No. 12, 1995, pp. 2023-2032.

[34]   L. Regoli, H. M. Chan and Y. de Lafontaine, “Organotins in Zebra Mussels (Dreissena Polymorpha) in the St. Lawrence River,” Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1999, pp. 839-846. doi:10.1021/es00012a011

[35]   J. Strand and G. Asmund, “Tributyltin Accumulation and Effects in Marine Molluscs from West Greenland,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 123, No. 1, 2003, pp. 31-37. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00361-5

[36]   M. A. Shreadah, T. O. Said, S. A. Abd El Ghani and A. M. Ahmed, “Distribution of Different Organotin and Or- ganolead Compounds in Sediment of Suez Gulf,” Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2011, pp. 545-554. doi:10.4236/jep.2011.25063

[37]   N. B. Bhosle, A. Garg, S. Jadhav, R. Harjee, S. S. Sawant, K. Venkat and A. C. Anil, “Butyltins in Water, Biofilm, Animals and Sediments of the West Coast of India,” Chemosphere, Vol. 57, No. 8, 2004, pp. 897-907. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.06.037

[38]   R. J. Maguire, R. J. Tkacz, Y. K. Chau, G. A. Bengert and P. T. S. Wong, “Occurrence of Organotin Compounds in Water and Sediment in Canada,” Chemosphere, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1986, pp. 253-274. doi:10.1016/0045-6535(86)90020-2

[39]   D. J. H. Phillips, B. J. Richardson, A. P. Murray and J. G. Fabris, “Trace Metals, Organochlorines and Hydrocar- bons in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria: A Historical Review,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 25, No. 5-8, 1992, pp. 200-217. doi:10.1016/0025-326X(92)90226-V