AS  Vol.3 No.5 , September 2012
Influence of fungicides and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and nutrient balance of soybean by used DRIS equation
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of mycorrhiza, fungicides in difference concentration and there combination on growth and nutrients balance index of soya bean. Tow AM treatments including with and with out mycorrhiza and tow fungicides (parasmid and ant-arcol) each of them including four concentration (0.0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 Kg·donum-1) were tested in factorial completely randomized design in the three replication. The results indicates that the higher value of total dry matter weight was recorded from combination treatment (F1M1C1) which attained 11.09 gm·pot-1 ,while the lower value 2.25 gm·pot-1 was produced by combination treatment (F2M2C3) ,however the same combination treatments was showed that the nitrogen ,phosphorus ,magnesium and iron in the shoot tissues in the mycorrhizal plant with lower concentration of fungicides were significantly greater (P < 0.01) compared to control and higher concentration treatments. The higher concentration of the above mentioned nutrients (28.33, 8.36, 6.34 mg·g-1, 251.00 mg·K-1) was recorded. The result of nutrient index and nutrient balance index revealed that the lower NBI (56.18) was recorded in combination treatments (F1M1C1), while the higher NBI (2033.81) was produced from combination treatments (F2M2C3), moreover the results shows significant negative correlation ship between NBI and total dry matter weight (r = -0.63*) .
Cite this paper: Darwesh, D. and Mustafa, K. (2012) Influence of fungicides and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and nutrient balance of soybean by used DRIS equation. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 738-744. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.35089.

[1]   Bethlenfalvay ,G.J and Linderman, R.G . (1992) Preface: my-corrhizae in sustainable agriculture. ASA Special Publication no. 54. American Society for Agriculture, Madison, WI

[2]   Ocampo ,J.A. (1993) Influence of pesticides on VA mycorrhizae. In: Altman. Journal .CRC, Boca Raton, Florida, 214–226.

[3]   Perrin, R and Plenchette, C (1993) Effects of some fungicides applied as soil drenches on the mycorrhizal infectivity of two cultivated soils and their receptiveness to Glomus intraradices. Crop Protection 12,127–133

[4]   Kurle, E.J and Pfleger, F.L. (1994), The effects of cultural practices and pesticides on VAM fungi. APS Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, 101–131

[5]   Chiocchio V., N. Venedikian, A. E. Martinez, A. Menendez, J. Ocampo, A., Godeas ,A. (2000). Effect of the fungicide benomyl on spore germination and hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae .Internatl Microbiol 3,173–175

[6]   Menge ,J.A. (1982) Effect of soil fumigants and fungicides on vesicular-arbuscular fungi. Phytopathology 72,1125–1132

[7]   Salem S.F., Dobolyi, C., Helyes, L., Pck,Z., Dimcny, J. (2003) Side-effect of benomyl and captan on arbuscular mycorrhiza formation Horticulturae 613 VIII International Symposium on the Processing Tomato.

[8]   Kjoller, R and Rosendahl, S. (2000) Effects of fungicides on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differential responses in alkaline phosphatase activity of external and internal hyphae.Biol Fertil Soils 31,361–365.

[9]   Smith, M.D., Hartnett ,D.C. and Rice ,C.W (2000) effects of long term fungicides application on microbial properties in tallg rass prairie soil .Soil Bio.Biochem.32, 935-946.

[10]   Samarbakhsh.S ., Rejali ,F., Ardakani ,M.R., Pak Nejad, F. and Miransari, M.(2009) The combination effects fungicides and arbuscular mycorrhiza on corn (Zea mays L.) growth and yield uder field conditions Journal of Biological Science 9(4) :372-376.

[11]   Schreiner ,R.P. and Bethlenfalvay, G.J. (1996) Mycorrhizae, biocides, and biocontrol.4. Response of a mixed culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and host plant to three fungicides.Biol Fertil Soils 23,189-195.

[12]   Hamel,C., Furlan ,B.V. and Smith, D.L. (1991) N2 –Fixation and transfer in a field grown mycorrhizal corn and soybean intercrop. Plant and Soil 133,177-185.

[13]   Soltanpour, P.N ., Malakouti ,M.J., Ronaghi ,A .(1995) Comparison of Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System and Nutrient Sufficient Range of Corn. Soil Science Society of American Journal . 59, 133–139.

[14]   Cline, R.A. (1962) Sampling techniques for determining leaf nutrient concentrations for strawberries.AnnualRept. Vineland Hort. Expt. Sta. and Prod. Lab. (Ontario) 19-27.

[15]   Schuffelen,A.A.M and Vanschaunou-wenburg J.G.H. (1961) Quick testes for soil and plant analysis used by small laboratories .Netherland Journal of Agriculture Science .9,2-16.

[16]   Bremner, J.M and Mulvaney, C.S. (1982) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Agronomy Vol. 9, 2nd Edition.American Journal of Soil Science. Society. Madison. WI ,595-624.

[17]   Black,C.A(1965).Method of soil analysis .Agr.Mono9 Parts(1and2) .Amr. Soc.Agrc. Inc. Pub. Maddison .Wisconson .USA,1-1575

[18]   Allen,S.E.(1976) Chemical analysis of ecological materials .Black well Scientific Publications Osney Mead ,Oxford, 1-500.

[19]   Pansu,M and Gautheyrou ,J. ( 2006) Hand book of soil analysis.Springer-Verlag Berlin Hei-delberg ,1-993.

[20]   Hallmark,W.B., DeMooy,C.J. and Pesek, J. (1987). Comparison of two methods for diagnosing nutrient deficiencies .Journal of Fertilizers Issues .4,4, 151-158.

[21]   Steele,R.G and Torrie ,J.H.(1969) Principle and procedure of statistic .McGraw Hill Book Co.Inc.New York. 1-530

[22]   Jabaji-Hare,S.H and Kendrick, W.B. (1987) Re-sponse of an endomycorrhizal fungus in Allium porrumL. To different concentrations of the systemstic fuingicides metalaxyln (Ridomil)and Fosetyl-Al (Aliette) .Soil .Biol. Bio-chem19,95-099

[23]   Mustafa,K.K,. Darwesh ,D.A. and Luay ,Ab.A.(2004) Effect of mycorrhiza ,phosphorus and urea on ammonia volatilization and soybean growth.Journal Dohuk Univ,.7,2, 101-105.

[24]   Abdel-fattah,G.M and Mankarious,A.T. (1997). Differential effects of fungicides on fungal viability and efficiency. Journal .Union Arabic Biol.3,237-261.

[25]   Mankarios,A.T, Gianinazzi,S. and Abdel El-Fattah, G.M.(1995) Improved growth and nutrition of soybean (Glycine maxL.) in saline soil associated with colonization by vesicular arbascular mycorrhiza fungi. Egypt .Journal. Botany,35,2,101-117.

[26]   Ratanayake,M., leonard, R.T. and Menge, J.A. (1978),Root exudation in relation to supply of phosphorus and its possible relevance to mycorrhizal formation. New Phtol.81,543-55