ABSTRACT Irrigation studies provide a framework for evaluating agricultural production and the water resource management in locations where water is scarce. Field experiments were conducted at Barbalha- CE (northwestern Brazil) during 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons to investigate the effects of different irrigation water depths on the water-use efficiency and yield of the BRS 200-brown cotton cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Three irrigation treatments were applied: T1 = 80%; T2 = 100% and T3 = 120% of the potential evapotranspiration (ETp). The Bowen ratio-energy balance was used to obtain crop evapotrnaspiration (ETc) while daily reference evapo-transpiration (ETo) was obtained by the Penman-Monteith approach. Irrigation water was applied by a sprinkler system during both cropping seasons. The daily evapotranspiration ranged from 2.59 mm·day-1 at the emergence to 5.89 mm·day-1 at first square growth stage with an accumulated value of 528.7 mm as a mean of the two cropping seasons. The average crop coefficient across both years (2004-2005) was 0.90, with minimum and maximum values of 0.46 and 1.17 at emergency and first flower growth stages, respectively. The results also showed that the increase in irrigation from 80% to 120% of ETp resulted in a significant increase in the seed-cotton yield (from 2476.0 to 3289.5 kg·ha-1), while lint percentage and water-use efficiency (WUE) were slightly reduced from 35.7% to 35.6% and from 0.60 to 0.53 kg·m-3, respectively. These results suggests that the cotton crop (cultivar BRS-200 brown) reaches higher water-use efficiency when irrigated with 80% of the crop evapotrnaspiration obtained as a function of the reference evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient proposed by FAO. However, the maximum seed-cotton yield is obtained when irrigated with 120% of that crop evapotranspiration.
Cite this paper
Azevedo, P. , Bezerra, J. and Silva, V. (2012) Evapotranspiration and water-use efficiency of irrigated colored cotton cultivar in semiarid regions. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 714-722. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.35086.
 Silva, V.P.R., Campos, J.H.B.C. and Azevedo, P.V. (2009) Water-use efficiency and evapotranspiration of mango orchard grown in northeastern region of Brazil. Scientific Horticulture, 120, 67-472.
 Nuti, R.C., M.C. Lamb, R.B. Sorensen and Truman, C.C. (2009) Agronomic and economic response to furrow diking tillage in irrigated and non-irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Agriculture Water Management, 96, 1078-1084.
 Azevedo, P.V., Sousa, I.F., Silva, B.B., Silva, V.P.R. (2006) Water-use efficiency of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) orchards in northeast Brazil. Agriculture Water Management, 84, 259-264.
 Zwart, S.J., Bastiaanssen, W.G.M. (2004) Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agriculture Water Management, 69, 115-133.
 Jalota, S.K., Sood, A., Chahal, G.B.S., Choudhury, B.U. (2006) Crop water productivity of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system as influenced by deficit irrigation, soil texture and precipitation. Agriculture Water Management, 84, 137-146.
 Tennakoon, S.B., Milroy, S.P. (2003) Crop water use and water use efficiency on irrigated cotton farms in Australia. Agriculture Water Management, 61, 179-194.
 Dagdelen, N., Yilmaz, E., Sezgin, F., Gurbuz, T. (2006) Water-yield relation and water use efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and second crop corn (Zea mays L.) in western Turkey. Agriculture Water Management, 82, 63-85.
 Dagdelen, N., Basal, H., Yilmaz., E., Gurbuz, T., Akcay, S. (2009) Different drip irrigation regimes affect cotton yield, water use efficiency and fiber quality in western Turkey. Agriculture Water Management, 96, 111-120.
 Pereira, L.S., Paredes, P., Eholpankulov, E.D., Inchenkova, O.P., Teodoro, P.R., Horst, M.G. (2009) Irrigation scheduling strategies for cotton to cope with water scarcity in the Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Agriculture Water Management, 96, 723-735.
 Ibragimov, N., Evett, S.R., Esanbekov, Y., Kamilov, B.S., Mirzaev, L., Lamers, J.P. A. (2007) Water use efficiency of irrigated cotton in Uzbekistan under drip and furrow irrigation. Agriculture Water Management, 90, 112-120.
 Cetin. O. and Bilgel, L. (2002) Effects of different irrigation methods on shedding and yield of cotton. Agriculture Water Management, 54, 1-15.
 Yazar. A., Sezen, S.M. and Sesveren, S. (2002) LEPA and trickle irrigation of cotton in the Southeast Anatolia Project (GAP) area in Turkey. Agriculture Water Management, 54, 189-203.
 Aujla, M.S., Thind, H.S. and Buttar, G.S. (2005) Cotton yield and water use efficiency at various levels of water and N through drip irrigation under two methods of planting. Agriculture Water Management, 71, 167-179.
 DeTar, W.R. (2008) Yield and growth characteristics for cotton under various irrigation regimes on sandy soil. Agriculture Water Management, 95, 69-76.
 Hunsaker. D.J., Clemmens, A.J. and Fangmeier, D.D. (1998) Cotton response to high frequency surface irrigation. Agriculture Water Management, 37, 55-74.
 Stathakos, T.D., Gemtos, T.A., Tsatsarelis, C.A. and Galanopoulou, S. (2006) Evaluation of three cultivation practices for early cotton establishment and improving crop profitability. Soil Tillage Research, 87, 135-145.
 Silva, V.P.R. (2004) On climate variability in Northeast of Brazil. Journal of Arid Environment, 58, 575–596.
 Correa, J.C. and Sharma, R.D. (2004) Herbaceous cotton yield in no-till system in rainfed savannah conditions with crop rotation. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, EMBRAPA, 29, 41-46 (in Portuguese).
 Hulugalle, N.R., Weaver, T.B., Finlay, L.A., Hare, J. and Entwistle, P.C. (2007) Soil properties and crop yields in a dryland Vertisol sown with cotton-based crop rotations. Soil Tillage Research, 93, 356-369.
 Nkema, J.N., Bruyn, L.A.L., Hulugalle, N.R. and Grant, C.D. (2002) Sowing other crops in rotation with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has proven to be a successful strategy employed by farmers to reverse yield decline and maintain soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology, 20, 69-74.
 Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D. and Smith, M. (1998) Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. United Nations for Food and Agriculture Organization. Irrigation and Drainage, Paper 56, Rome, Italy, 300 p.
 Doorenbos, J. and Kassam, A.H. (1979) Yield response to water. FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Paper 33, Rome, 193 p.
 Prueger, J.H., Hatfield, J.L. and Aase, J.K. (1997) Bowen-ratio comparisons with lysimeter evapotranspiration. Agronomy Journal, 89 (1), 730–736.
 Azevedo, P.V., Silva, B.B., Silva, V.P.R. (2003) Water requirements of irrigated mango orchards in northeast Brazil. Agriculture Water Management, 58 (1), 241–254.
 Silva, V.P.R., Azevedo, P.V. and Silva, B.B. (2007) Surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration of a mango orchard grown in a semiarid environment, Agronomy Journal, 99, 1391-1396.
 Perez, P.J., Castellvi, F., Ibanez, M. and Rosell, J.I. (1999) Assessment of reliability of Bowen ratio method for partitioning fluxes. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology, 97, 141–150.
 Thind, H.S., Aujla, M.S. and Buttar, G.S. (2008) Response of cotton to various levels of nitrogen and water applied to normal and paired sown cotton under drip irrigation in relation to check-basin. Agriculture Water Management, 95, 25-34.
 Silva, F.A.S. (1996) The ASSISTAT Software: statistical assistance. In: International Conference on Computers in Agriculture. Trans. ASAE, 1, 294-298.
 Rosenberg, N,J., Blad, B.L. and Verna, S.B. (1983) Microclimate: The Biological Environment. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 495p.
 Karam, F., Lahoud, R., Masaad, R., Daccache, A., Mounzer, O. and Rouphael, Y. (2006) Water use and lint yield response of drip irrigated cotton to the length of irrigation season. Agriculture Water Management, 85, 287-295.
 Ko, J., Piccinni, G., Marek, T. and Howell, T. (2009) Determination of growth-stage-specific crop coefficients (Kc) of cotton and wheat. Agriculture Water Management, 96, 1691-1697.
 Martin, S.W. and Hanks, J. (2009) Economic analysis of no tillage and minimum tillage cotton-corn rotations in the Mississippi Delta. Soil Tillage Research, 102, 135-137.
 Wright, G.C., Nagaswara Rao, R.C. and Farquhar, G.D. (1994) Peanut cultivar variation in water-use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination under drought conditions in the field. Crop Science, 34, 92-97.
 Du, T., Kang, S., Zhang, J., Li, F. and Hu, X. (2006) Yield and physiological responses of cotton to partial root-zone irrigation in the oasis field of northwest China. Agriculture Water Management, 84, 41-52.