OJI  Vol.2 No.3 , September 2012
The investigation of protective concomitant immunity in murine schistosomiasis mansoni
Abstract: The present study was conducted mainly to establish a new concomitant immunity model to Schistosoma mansoni in mice and assess its effects on the resistance of mice to a challenge infection with a possibility of using as a diagnostic marker. Three groups (A, B and C) of BALB/c mice were infected with a single dose of S. mansoni cercariae obtained from infected Biomphalaria glabrata snail. The group A mice were used as infected control group. The group B mice were intraperitoneally injected with allylthiourea (ATU) 22 days post-primary infection then they were challenged 3 weeks post-ATU treatment. The group C mice were challenged with the same number of cercariae 6 weeks post-primary infection. Perfusion of all mice was done 9 weeks after infection in order to obtain worm burdens. The livers of all mice were obtained for parasitological and pathological assessments. Our results showed that the group B mice had a 29.11% worm reduction rate, 25.37% liver egg reduction rate, and 37.48% granuloma size reduction rate compared to their respective controls. While the group C mice showed superior results and had a 54.66% worm reduction rate, 41.45% liver egg reduction rate, and 51.76% granuloma size reduction rate. It was concluded that these results described novel imaging methods that permit visualization of live schistosomes within their living hosts and may have important implications not only for epidemiological and diagnostic investigations, but also in designing control programs for schistosomiasis including anti-schistosome vaccine.
Cite this paper: Salim, A. and Ismael, A. (2012) The investigation of protective concomitant immunity in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Open Journal of Immunology, 2, 132-137. doi: 10.4236/oji.2012.23016.

[1]   Steinmann, P., Keiser, J., Bos, R., et al. (2006) Schistosomiasis and water resources development, systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 6, 411-425. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70521-7

[2]   World Health Organization (2008) The social context of schistosomiasis and its control: An introduction and annotated bibliography.

[3]   Zhou, X., Chen, M., Don, Mc. and Robert, B. (2002) Schistosomiasis control in the 21st century. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Schistosomiasis, Shanghai, 4-6 July 2001. Acta Tropica, 82, 95-114.

[4]   Claire, J.S., Andrew, P.D. and Stothard, J.R. (2012) Out of animals and back again: Schistosomiasis as a zoonosis in Africa. In: Rokni, M.B., Ed., Schistosomiasis, 1st Edition, InTech Publisher, Janeza Trdine, Rijeka, Croatia. 209-230.

[5]   Bergquist, N.R. (2002) Schistosomiasis: From risk assessment to control. Trends in Parasitology, 18, 309-314. doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(02)02301-2

[6]   Capron, A., Riveau, G.J., Bartley, P.B. and McManus, D.P. (2002) Prospects for a schistosome vaccine. Current Drug Targets: Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders, 2, 281-290.

[7]   Smithers, S.R. and Terry, R.J. (1969) Immunity in Schistosomiasis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 160, 826-840. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1969.tb15904.x

[8]   Smithers, S.R. and Terry, R.J. (1965) The infection of laboratory hosts with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and the recovery of the adult worms. Parasitology, 55, 695-700.

[9]   Tendler, M., Pinto, R.M., Lima, A.O., et al. (1986) Schistosoma mansoni-vaccination with adult worm antigens. International Journal for Parasitology, 16, 347-352. doi:10.1016/0020-7519(86)90113-X

[10]   Cutts, I. and Wilson, R.A. (1997) The protein antigens secreted in vivo by adult male Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology, 14, 245-255. doi:10.1017/S0031182096008438

[11]   Maizels, R.M. and Lawrence, R.A. (1991) Immunological tolerance—The key feature in human filariasis. Parasitology Today, 7, 271-276. doi:10.1016/0169-4758(91)90093-4

[12]   Cheever, A.W., Kamel, I.A., Elwi, A.M., et al. (1978) Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium in Egypt. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 27, 55-75.

[13]   Wilson, R.A., Coulson, P.S. and McHugh, S.M. (1983) A significant part of the “concomitant immunity” of mice to Schistosoma mansoni is the consequence of a leaky hepatic portal system, not immune killing. Parasite Immunology, 5, 595-601. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.1983.tb00776.x

[14]   McHugh, S.M., Coulson, P.S. and Wilson, R.A.P. (1983) Athologically induced alterations in the dimensions of the hepatic portal vasculature of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Parasit X, 94, 69-80.

[15]   Seed, J.L. and Bennett, J.L. (1980) Schistosoma mansoni: Phenol oxidase’s role in eggshell formation. Experimental Parasitology, 49, 430-441. doi:10.1016/0014-4894(80)90077-6

[16]   Eshete, F. and LoVerde, P.T. (1993) Characteristics of phenol oxidase of Schistosoma mansoni and its functional implications in eggshell synthesis. Journal of Parasitology, 79, 309-317. doi:10.2307/3283563

[17]   Schubert, M. (1948) Conditions for drug testing in experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 28, 121-136.

[18]   Frandsen, F. (1981) Cultivation of schistosomes for chemotherapeutic studies. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, 49, 118-122. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0773.1981.tb03262.x

[19]   Allam, G. (2009) Immunomodulatory effects of curcum in treatment on murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Immunobiology, 214, 712-727. doi:10.1016/j.imbio.2008.11.017

[20]   Duvall, R.H. and DeWitt, W.B. (1967) An improved perfusion technique for recovering adult schistosomes from laboratory animals. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 16, 483-486.

[21]   Cheever, A.W. (1968) Condition affecting the accuracy of potassium hydroxide digestion techniques for counting Schistosoma mansoni eggs in tissues. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 39, 328-331.

[22]   Ohmae, H., Tanaka, M., Nara, T, et al. (1991) Serologic and ultrasonographic parameters of praziquantel treatment of hepatic fibrosis in Schistosoma japonicum infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 45, 350-359.

[23]   Phillips, S.M., Reid, W.A., Bruce, J.I., et al. (1975) The cellular and humoral immune response to S. mansoni infections in inbred rats. I. Mechanisms during initial exposure. Cellular Immunology, 19, 99-103. doi:10.1016/0008-8749(75)90295-6

[24]   Cioli, D. and Dennert, G. (1976) The course of S. mansoni infection in thymectomized rats. Immunology, 117, 59-63.

[25]   Smithers, S.R. and Terry, R.J. (1965b) Acquired resistance to experimental infections of S. mansoni in the albino rat. Parasitology, 55, 711-719.

[26]   Knopf, P.M., Nutman, T.B. and Reasoner, J.A. (1977) S. mansoni: Resistance to reinfection in the rat. Experimental Parasitology, 41, 74-81. doi:10.1016/0014-4894(77)90131-X

[27]   Perez, H.A., Clegg, J.A. and Smithers, S.R. (1974) Acquired immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in the rat: Measurement of immunity by the lung recovery technique. Parasitology, 69, 34915-34920. doi:10.1017/S0031182000063046

[28]   Dean, D.A., Wistar, R. and MuRuell, K.D. (1974) Combined in vitro effects of rat antibody and neutrophilic leukocytes on schistosomula of S. mansoni. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 23, 420-427.

[29]   Perez, H.A. and Smithers, S.R. (1977) Schistosoma mansoni in the rat: The adherence of macrophages to schistosomula in vitro after sensitization with immune serum. International Journal of Parasitology, 7, 315-318. doi:10.1016/0020-7519(77)90040-6

[30]   Capron, A., Dessaint, J.P., Capron, M. and Bazin, H. (1975) Specific IgE antibodies in immune adherence of normal macrophages to Schistosoma mansoni schistosomules. Nature (Lond.), 253, 47-52. doi:10.1038/253474a0

[31]   Yi, X.Y., Simpson, A.J., de Rossi, R. and Smithers, S.R. (1986) The presence of antibody in mice chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni which blocks in vitro killing of schistosomula. Journal of Immunology, 137, 3955-3958.

[32]   McLaren, D.J. and Rogers, M.V. (1986) Schistosoma mansoni: Liver phase challenge attrition is a stage-dependent phenomenon in guinea-pigs vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae. Parasite Immunology, 8, 307-318. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.1986.tb00848.x

[33]   Brown, S.P. and Grenfell, B.T. (2001) An unlikely partnership: Parasites, concomitant immunity and host defense. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 268, 2543-2549. doi:10.1098/rspb.2001.1821

[34]   Huang, H.Q., Li, S.C., Qin, Z.H., et al. (2005) Synthesis and bioactivities of two multiple antigen peptides as potential vaccine against Schistosoma. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 15, 2415-2419. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.01.040

[35]   Phillips, S.M., Reid, W.A. and Sadun, E.H. (1977) The cellular and humoral immune response to S. mansoni infection in inbred rats. II. Mechanisms during reexposure. Cellular Immunology, 28, 75-83.