ABSTRACT Many of the major rivers in India originate from the Himalayas. These rivers have significant contribution from snow and ice which makes these rivers perennial. Due to steep slopes, all such streams have potential sites for hydropower generation. There is a requirement of estimation of the contribution from snow and glacier melt, rainfall contribution and sub surface contribution in the total runoff for sustainable supply of water to the hydropower plants. Considering this aspects, in this study a snowmelt runoff simulation model SNOWMOD suitable for Himalayan basins developed earlier has been modified and applied for simulation of flows. Input to the model such as glacier cover, permanent snow cover, seasonal snow cover generated through remote sensing techniques were used in conjunction with daily maximum and minimum temperature, rainfall and discharge. Two hydropower dam sites on major tributaries (Bhagirathi and DhauliGanga) of River Ganga have been selected for determination of different runoff components. However, though the data available was for a very limited period but the results indicate that these tributaries have significant contribution from snow and ice for long term sustainability of flows to these schemes.
Cite this paper
nullM. Arora, D. Rathore, R. Singh, R. Kumar and A. Kumar, "Estimation of Melt Contribution to Total Streamflow in River Bhagirathi and River DhauliGanga at Loharinag Pala and Tapovan Vishnugad Project Sites," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2010, pp. 636-643. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.27073.
 V. K. Raina and D. Srivastava, “Glacier Atlas of India,” Geological Society of India, Bangalore, 2008, p. 315.
P. Kasser, “Fluctuation of Glaciers (1959-1965),” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, 1967.
P. Singh, S. K. Jain and N. Kumar, “Estimation of Snow and Glacier-Melt Contribution to the Chenab River, Western Himalaya,” Mountain Research Development, Vol. 17, No. 1, 1997, pp. 49-56.
P. Singh and S. K. Jain, “Snow and Glacier Melt in the Satluj River at Bhakra Dam in the Western Himalayan Region,” Hydrological Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2002, pp. 93-106.
V. Kumar, P. Singh and V. Singh, “Snow and Glacier Melt Contribution in the Beas River at Pandoh Dam, Himachal Pradesh, India,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2007, pp. 376-388.
“Runoff Evaluation and Streamflow Simulation by Computer,” Part II, US Army of Engineers, North Pacific Division, Portland, 1971.
E. A. C. Anderson, “The National Weather Service River Forecast System－Snow Accumulation and Ablation Model,” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra-tion, Washington, D.C., 1973.
S. Finsterwalder and H. Schunk, “Der Suldenferner,” Oesterreichischer Alpenverein, Vol. 18, 1987, pp. 72-89.
J. Martinec, A. Rango and R. Roberts, “Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM) User’s Manual (Version 3.0),” In: M. Baumgartner, Ed., Department of Geography, University of Bern, Switzerland, 1994.
M. C. Quick and A. Pipes, “UBC Watershed Model Manual (Version 4.0),” University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1995.
P. Singh and V. P. Singh, “Snow and Glacier Hydrology,” Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2001.
P. Singh and S. K. Jain, “Modelling of Streamflow and its Components for a Large Himalayan Basin with Predo- minant Snowmelt Yield,” Hydrological Sciences, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2003, pp. 257-276.