Experimental Analysis of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger for Northern Tunisia

Affiliation(s)

Laboratory Thermal Processes, Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Hammam Lif, Tunis, Tunisie.

Laboratory Thermal Processes, Research and Technology Centre of Energy,Hammam Lif, Tunis, Tunisie.

Laboratory Thermal Processes, Research and Technology Centre of Energy, Hammam Lif, Tunis, Tunisie.

Laboratory Thermal Processes, Research and Technology Centre of Energy,Hammam Lif, Tunis, Tunisie.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is first to evaluate the Tunisian geothermal energy and second to test the performance of horizontal ground heat exchanger. An experimental set-up has been constructed for climatic condition of Borj Cedria located in the north of Tunisia for space cooling. Results obtained during experiment were presented and discussed. The ground temperature at several depths was measured, the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was determined. To evaluate the system efficiency, the energy analysis was applied; the energy efficiency was found to range from 14% to 28%. The heat exchange rate was quantified, the pressure losses were calculated. The total heat rejected by using the ground heat exchanger (GHE) system was compared to the total cool requirements of a tested room with 12 m2 surface. The results showed that the GHE, with 25 m of length buried at 1 m depth, covers 38% of the total cool requirement of the tested room. This study showed that the ground heat exchanger provide a new way of cooling buildings, it also showed that Tunisia have an important thermal potential. This favorable circumstance allows Tunisia to be a pioneer in the exploitation of geothermal energy for the installation of ground source heat pump systems.

The aim of this study is first to evaluate the Tunisian geothermal energy and second to test the performance of horizontal ground heat exchanger. An experimental set-up has been constructed for climatic condition of Borj Cedria located in the north of Tunisia for space cooling. Results obtained during experiment were presented and discussed. The ground temperature at several depths was measured, the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) was determined. To evaluate the system efficiency, the energy analysis was applied; the energy efficiency was found to range from 14% to 28%. The heat exchange rate was quantified, the pressure losses were calculated. The total heat rejected by using the ground heat exchanger (GHE) system was compared to the total cool requirements of a tested room with 12 m2 surface. The results showed that the GHE, with 25 m of length buried at 1 m depth, covers 38% of the total cool requirement of the tested room. This study showed that the ground heat exchanger provide a new way of cooling buildings, it also showed that Tunisia have an important thermal potential. This favorable circumstance allows Tunisia to be a pioneer in the exploitation of geothermal energy for the installation of ground source heat pump systems.

Cite this paper

Naili, N. , Attar, I. , Hazami, M. and Farhat, A. (2012) Experimental Analysis of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger for Northern Tunisia.*Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control*, **2**, 44-51. doi: 10.4236/jectc.2012.23005.

Naili, N. , Attar, I. , Hazami, M. and Farhat, A. (2012) Experimental Analysis of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger for Northern Tunisia.

References

[1] Jalaluddin and A. Miyara, “Thermal Performance Investigation of Several Types of Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers with Different Operation Mode,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 33-34, 2012, pp. 167-174. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.030

[2] A. M. Omer, “Ground-Source Heat Pumps Systems and Applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2008, pp. 344-371. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.10.003

[3] G. Axelsson, “Sustainable Geothermal Utilization—Case Histories; Definitions; Research Issues and Modelling,” Geothermics, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2010, pp. 283-291. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2010.08.001

[4] X. H. Xu, S. W. Wang, J. B. Wang and F. Xiao, “Active Pipe-Embedded Structures in Buildings for Utilizing Low-Grade Energy Sources: A Review,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1567-1581. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.05.002

[5] G. Florides and S. Kalogirou, “Ground Heat Exchangers—A Review of Systems, Models and Applications,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, No. 15, 2007, 2461-2478. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2006.12.014

[6] D. Mileni?, P. Vasiljevi? and A. Vranje?, “Criteria for Use of Groundwater as Renewable Energy Source in Geothermal Heat Pump Systems for Building Heating/ Cooling Purposes,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2010, pp. 649-657. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.11.002

[7] H. Esen, M. Inalli, M. Esen and K. Pihtili, “Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System with Two Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2007, pp. 3606-3615. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.014

[8] U. Eicker and C. Vorschulze, “Potential of Geothermal Heat Exchangers for Office Building Climatisation,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1126-1133. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.06.019

[9] H. Esen, M. Inalli and M. Esen, “A Techno-Economic Comparison of Ground-Coupled and Air-Coupled Heat Pump System for Space Cooling,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1955-1965. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.04.007

[10] J. Zhao, H. J. Wang, X. G. Li and C. S. Dai, “Experimental investigation and theoretical model of heat transfer of saturated soil around coaxial ground coupled heat exchanger,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 2008, pp. 116-125.

[11] C. A. De Swardt and J. P. Meyer, “A Performance Comparison between an Air-Source and a Ground-Source Reversible Heat Pump,” International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 899-910. doi:10.1002/er.730

[12] P. Cui, H. Yang and Z. Fang, “Numerical Analysis and Experimental Validation of Heat Transfer in Ground Heat Exchangers in Alternative Operation Modes,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1060-1066. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.10.005

[13] H. Demir, A. Koyun and G. Temir, “Heat Transfer of Horizontal Parallel Pipe Ground Heat Exchanger and Experimental Verification,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, pp. 224-233. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.02.027

[14] A. Negiz, M. A. Hastaoglu and R. A. Heidemann, “Three-Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer from a Buried Pipe—I. Laminar Flow,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 48, No. 20, 1993, pp. 3507-3517. doi:10.1016/0009-2509(93)85006-B

[15] A. Negiz, M. A. Hastaoglu and R. A. Heidemann, “Three-Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer from a Buried Pipe: Solidification of a Stationary Fluid,” Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1995, pp. 175-193. doi:10.1080/10407789508913740

[16] S. Thiers and B. Peuportier, “Modélisation Thermique d’un échangeur Air/Sol Pour le Rafra?chissement des Batiments,” Journée Thématique SFT-IBPSA Froid Solaire et Confort d’été, 2007, Aix-les-Bains.

[17] Y. H. Bi, L. G. Chen and C. Wu, “Ground Heat Exchanger Temperature Distribution Analysis and Experimental Verification,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2002, pp. 183-189. doi:10.1016/S1359-4311(01)00073-4

[18] P. M. Congedo, G. Colangelo and G. Starace, “CFD Simulations of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers: A Comparison among Different Configurations,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 33-34, 2012, pp. 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.005

[19] D. Missirlis, S. Donnerhack, O. Seite, C. Albanakis, A. Sideridis, K. Yakinthos and A. Goulas, “Numerical Development of a Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Porosity Model for a Heat Exchanger for Aero Engine Applications,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 11-12, 2010, pp. 1341-1350. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.02.021

[20] W. H. Leong, V. R. Tarnawski and A. Aittomaki, “Effect of Soil Type and Moisture Content on Ground Heat Pump Performance,” International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 21, No. 8, 1998, pp. 595-606. doi:10.1016/S0140-7007(98)00041-3

[21] J. E. Bose, J. D. Parker and F. C. McQuiston, “Design/ Data Manual for Closed-Loop Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, 1985.

[22] S. P. Kavanaugh and K. Rafferty, “Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Design of Geothermal Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Chiba, 1997.

[23] M. Hazami, “étude Expérimentale et Numérique du Phénomène de Stockage et de Déstockage de L’énergie Sensible en Utilisant un Echangeur Capillaire en Polypropylène,” Thèse de Doctorat, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Tunis, 2008.

[24] I. E. IdelCik, “Mémento des Pertes de Charges: Coefficients de Pertes de Charges Singulières et de Pertes de Charge par Frottement,” Traduit par M. Meury, Editions Eyrolles, Saint-Germain, Paris, 1986.

[1] Jalaluddin and A. Miyara, “Thermal Performance Investigation of Several Types of Vertical Ground Heat Exchangers with Different Operation Mode,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 33-34, 2012, pp. 167-174. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.030

[2] A. M. Omer, “Ground-Source Heat Pumps Systems and Applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2008, pp. 344-371. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.10.003

[3] G. Axelsson, “Sustainable Geothermal Utilization—Case Histories; Definitions; Research Issues and Modelling,” Geothermics, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2010, pp. 283-291. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2010.08.001

[4] X. H. Xu, S. W. Wang, J. B. Wang and F. Xiao, “Active Pipe-Embedded Structures in Buildings for Utilizing Low-Grade Energy Sources: A Review,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2010, pp. 1567-1581. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.05.002

[5] G. Florides and S. Kalogirou, “Ground Heat Exchangers—A Review of Systems, Models and Applications,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, No. 15, 2007, 2461-2478. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2006.12.014

[6] D. Mileni?, P. Vasiljevi? and A. Vranje?, “Criteria for Use of Groundwater as Renewable Energy Source in Geothermal Heat Pump Systems for Building Heating/ Cooling Purposes,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2010, pp. 649-657. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.11.002

[7] H. Esen, M. Inalli, M. Esen and K. Pihtili, “Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Ground-Coupled Heat Pump System with Two Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 10, 2007, pp. 3606-3615. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.10.014

[8] U. Eicker and C. Vorschulze, “Potential of Geothermal Heat Exchangers for Office Building Climatisation,” Renewable Energy, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1126-1133. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.06.019

[9] H. Esen, M. Inalli and M. Esen, “A Techno-Economic Comparison of Ground-Coupled and Air-Coupled Heat Pump System for Space Cooling,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1955-1965. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2006.04.007

[10] J. Zhao, H. J. Wang, X. G. Li and C. S. Dai, “Experimental investigation and theoretical model of heat transfer of saturated soil around coaxial ground coupled heat exchanger,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 2008, pp. 116-125.

[11] C. A. De Swardt and J. P. Meyer, “A Performance Comparison between an Air-Source and a Ground-Source Reversible Heat Pump,” International Journal of Energy Research, Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 899-910. doi:10.1002/er.730

[12] P. Cui, H. Yang and Z. Fang, “Numerical Analysis and Experimental Validation of Heat Transfer in Ground Heat Exchangers in Alternative Operation Modes,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 40, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1060-1066. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.10.005

[13] H. Demir, A. Koyun and G. Temir, “Heat Transfer of Horizontal Parallel Pipe Ground Heat Exchanger and Experimental Verification,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 29, No. 2-3, pp. 224-233. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2008.02.027

[14] A. Negiz, M. A. Hastaoglu and R. A. Heidemann, “Three-Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer from a Buried Pipe—I. Laminar Flow,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 48, No. 20, 1993, pp. 3507-3517. doi:10.1016/0009-2509(93)85006-B

[15] A. Negiz, M. A. Hastaoglu and R. A. Heidemann, “Three-Dimensional Transient Heat Transfer from a Buried Pipe: Solidification of a Stationary Fluid,” Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1995, pp. 175-193. doi:10.1080/10407789508913740

[16] S. Thiers and B. Peuportier, “Modélisation Thermique d’un échangeur Air/Sol Pour le Rafra?chissement des Batiments,” Journée Thématique SFT-IBPSA Froid Solaire et Confort d’été, 2007, Aix-les-Bains.

[17] Y. H. Bi, L. G. Chen and C. Wu, “Ground Heat Exchanger Temperature Distribution Analysis and Experimental Verification,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2002, pp. 183-189. doi:10.1016/S1359-4311(01)00073-4

[18] P. M. Congedo, G. Colangelo and G. Starace, “CFD Simulations of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers: A Comparison among Different Configurations,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 33-34, 2012, pp. 24-32. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.09.005

[19] D. Missirlis, S. Donnerhack, O. Seite, C. Albanakis, A. Sideridis, K. Yakinthos and A. Goulas, “Numerical Development of a Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Porosity Model for a Heat Exchanger for Aero Engine Applications,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 30, No. 11-12, 2010, pp. 1341-1350. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2010.02.021

[20] W. H. Leong, V. R. Tarnawski and A. Aittomaki, “Effect of Soil Type and Moisture Content on Ground Heat Pump Performance,” International Journal of Refrigeration, Vol. 21, No. 8, 1998, pp. 595-606. doi:10.1016/S0140-7007(98)00041-3

[21] J. E. Bose, J. D. Parker and F. C. McQuiston, “Design/ Data Manual for Closed-Loop Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Systems,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, 1985.

[22] S. P. Kavanaugh and K. Rafferty, “Ground-Source Heat Pumps: Design of Geothermal Systems for Commercial and Institutional Buildings,” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Chiba, 1997.

[23] M. Hazami, “étude Expérimentale et Numérique du Phénomène de Stockage et de Déstockage de L’énergie Sensible en Utilisant un Echangeur Capillaire en Polypropylène,” Thèse de Doctorat, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Tunis, 2008.

[24] I. E. IdelCik, “Mémento des Pertes de Charges: Coefficients de Pertes de Charges Singulières et de Pertes de Charge par Frottement,” Traduit par M. Meury, Editions Eyrolles, Saint-Germain, Paris, 1986.