FNS  Vol.3 No.9 , September 2012
Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Water and Ethanol Extracts Obtained from Dried Boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) Fruit
Abstract: Antioxidant activities of W and E extracts obtained from dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging and reducing powers, and their relationships with total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were investigated. A linear correlation among antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and flavonoid content was observed in concentration-dependent mode. Both extracts showed > 95% DPPH radical-scavenging activity and the higher reducing power of 3200 ppm at the same concentration. The antioxidant potential of both extracts were compared with those of commercial antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, TBHQ, ferulic acid, and α-tocopherol using H2O2 scavenging activity, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, inhibition of hemolysis of rat erythrocyte induced by peroxyl radicals, and inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue. In the H2O2 scavenging activity, E extract showed a comparable significant antioxidant power, comparable to commercial antioxidants, and no signifi-cant difference (P > 0.05) was found between W and E extracts on inhibition of the linoleic acid peroxidation. Whereas W extract exhibited a significant power in the hemolysis of rat erythrocytes, none was observed in E extract. In the Fe-induced lipid peroxidation using rat brain tissue, no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found between both ex-tracts, showing a comparable activity with those of synthetic antioxidants. Both W and E extracts of dried boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) fruit may have a potential as natural antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants.
Cite this paper: J. Kim, "Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Water and Ethanol Extracts Obtained from Dried Boxthorn (Lycium chinensis) Fruit," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 1307-1320. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.39173.

[1]   J. V. Higdon and B. Frei, “Tea Catechins and Polyphenols: Health Effects, Metabolism, and Antioxidant Functions,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2003, pp. 89-143. doi:10.1080/10408690390826464

[2]   K. Le, F. Chiu and K. Ng, “Identification and Quantification of Antioxidants in Fructus lycii,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 105, No. 1, 2007, pp. 353-363. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.11.063

[3]   W. Droge, “Free Radicals in the Physiological Control of Cell Function,” Physiological Reviews, Vol. 82, No. 1, 2002, pp. 47-95.

[4]   ?. Gül?in, M. Oktay, ?. ?. Küfrevio?lu and A. Alsan, “Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Lichen Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2002, pp. 325-329. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00396-8

[5]   ?. Gül?in, M. Oktay, E. K?re?c? and ?. ?. K?frevio?lu, “Screening of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) Seed Extracts,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 83, No. 3, 2003, pp. 371-382. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00098-0

[6]   A. Barbouti, P. T. Doulias, L. Nousis, M. Tenopoulou and D. Galaris, “DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Hydrogen Peroxide-Exposed Jurkat Cells: Bolus versus Contious Generation of H2O2,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 5, 2002, pp. 691-702. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00967-X

[7]   S. Linn, “DNA Damage by Iron and Hydrogen Peroxide in Vitro and in Vivo,” Drug Metabolism Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1998, pp. 313-326. doi:10.3109/03602539808996315

[8]   S. Sasaki, T. Ohta and E. A. Decker, “Antioxidant Activity of Water-Soluble Fraction of Salmon Spremary Tissue,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 7, 1996, pp. 1682-1686. doi:10.1021/jf950778h

[9]   P. D. Duh, “Antioxidant Activity of Burdock (Arctium lappa Linne): Its Scavenging Effect on Free Radical and Active Oxygen,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 75, No. 4, 1998, pp. 455-465.

[10]   L. Brave, “Polyphenols: Chemistry, Dietary Sources, Metabolism, and Nutritional Significance,” Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 56, No. 11, 1988, pp. 317-333. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.1998.tb01670.x

[11]   M. S. Su, Y. T. Shyu and P. J. Chien, “Antioxidant Activities of Citrus Herbal Product Extracts,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 111, No. 4, 2008, pp. 892-896. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.002

[12]   N. Ito, S. Fukushima, A. Hasegawa, M. Shibata and T. Ogiso, “Carcinogenecity of Buthylated Hydroxyl Anisole in F344 Rats,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 70, No. 2, 1983, pp. 343-347.

[13]   W. Zheng and S. Y. Wang, “Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds in Selected Herbs,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 49, No. 11, 2001, pp. 5165-5170. doi:10.1021/jf010697n

[14]   W. A. Pryor, “The Antioxidant Nutrient and Diseases Prevention—What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Find Out?” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1991, pp. 391-393.

[15]   J.-S. Kim and H. Y. Chung, “GC-MS Analysis of the Volatile Components in Dried Boxthorn (Lycium chinenesis) Fruit,” Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 5, 2009, pp. 516-524. doi:10.3839/jksabc.2009.088

[16]   O. Potterat, “Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Safety in the Perspective of Traditional Uses and Recent Popularity,” Planta Medica, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2010, pp. 7-19.

[17]   S. Y. Kim, Y. H. Choi, J. Kim, Y. C. Kim and H. S. Lee, “New Antihepatoxic Cerebrocide from Lycium chinense Fruits,” Journal of Natural Product, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1997, pp. 274-276. doi:10.1021/np960670b

[18]   X. Peng and G. Tian, “Structural Characterization of the Glycan Part of Glycoconjugate LbGp2 from Lycium barbarum L.,” Carbohydrate Research, Vol. 331, No. 1, 2001, pp. 95-99. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)00321-9

[19]   I. Leung, M. Tso, W. Li and T. Lam, “Absorption and Tissue Distribution of Zeaxanthin and Lutein in Rhesus Monkeys after Taking Fructus lycii (Gou Qi Zi) Extract,” Investigate Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2001, pp. 466-471.

[20]   T. Toyoda-Ono, M. Maeda, M. Nakao, M. Yoshimura, N. Sigiura-Tomimori and H. Fukami, “2-O(?-D-glucopyranosyl) Ascorbic Acid, a Novel Ascorbic Acid Analogue Isolated from Lycium Fruit,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 7, 2004, pp. 2092-2096. doi:10.1021/jf035445w

[21]   S. Y. Kim, E. J. Lee, H. P. Kim, Y. C. Kim, A. Moon and Y. C. Kim, “A Novel Cerebrocide from Lycii Frctus Preserves the Hepatic Glutathione Redox System in Primary Cultures of Rat Hepatocytes,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 22, No. 8, 1999, 873-875. doi:10.1248/bpb.22.873

[22]   K. T. Ha, S. J. Yoon, D. Y. Choi, D. W. Kim, J. K. Kim and C. H. Kim, “Prospective Effect of Lycium chinense Fruit on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2005, pp. 529-535. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.054

[23]   J. C. Tang, J. N. Zhang, Y. T. Wu and Z. K. Li, “Effect of the Water Extract and Ethanol Extract from Traditional Chinese Medicines Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Rheum palmatum L. on Rat Liver Cytochrome P450 Activity,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 20, No. 12, 2006, pp. 1046-1051. doi:10.1002/ptr.1974

[24]   J.-S. Kim, “Radical Scavenging Capacity and Antioxidant Activity of the E Vitamer Fraction in Rice Bran,” Journal of Food Science, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2005, pp. C208-C213. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.tb07127.x

[25]   T. Hatano, H. Kagawa, T. Yasuhara and T. Okuda, “Two New Flavonoids and Other Constituents in Licorice Root: Their Relative Astringency and Radical Scavenging Effects,” Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1988, pp. 2090-2097. doi:10.1248/cpb.36.2090

[26]   R. Julkunen-Tiitto, “Phenolic Contents in the Leaves of Northern Willows: Methods for the Analysis of Certain Phenolics,” Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1985, pp. 213-217. doi:10.1021/jf00062a013

[27]   S. N. Lim, P. C. K. Cheung, V. E. C. Ooi and P. O. Ang, “Evaluation of Antioxidative Activity of Extracts from a Brown Seaweed, Sargassum siliquastrum,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 13, 2002, pp. 3862-3866. doi:10.1021/jf020096b

[28]   D. Atmani, N. Chaher, M. Berboucha, K. Ayouni, H. Lounis, H. Boudaoud, N. Debbache and D. Atmani, “Antioxidant Capacity and Phenol Content of Selected Algerian Medicinal Plants,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 112, No. 2, 2009, pp. 303-309. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.077

[29]   Z. Marksimovi?, D. Malen?i? and N. Kova?evi?, “Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Maydis stigma Extracts,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 96, No. 8, 2005, pp. 873-877. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2004.09.006

[30]   M. Oyaizu, “Studies on Product of Browning Reaction Prepared from Glucose Amine,” Japanese Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 44, No. 6, 1986, pp. 307-315. doi:10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307

[31]   G. C. Yen, Y. C. Chang and S. W. Su, “Antioxidant Activity and Active Compounds of Rice Koji Fermented with Aspergillus candidus,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 83, No. 1, 2003, pp. 49-54. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00035-9

[32]   L. M. Cheung, P. C. K. Cheung and V. E. C. Ooi, “Antioxidnat Activity and Total Phenolics of Edible Mushroom Extracts,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 81, No. 2, 2003, pp. 249-255. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00419-3

[33]   M. Miki, H. Tamina, M. Mino, Y. Yamamoto and E. Niki, “Free-Radical Chain Oxidation of Rat Red Blood Cells by Molecular Oxygen and Its Inhibition by ?-tocopherol,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Vol. 258, No. 2, 1987, pp. 373-380. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(87)90358-4

[34]   K. Wang, Y. Zhang and C. Yang, “Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Rhizomes of Polygonum paleaceum,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2005, pp. 483-487. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.09.036

[35]   O. P. Tiwari and Y. B. Triphathi, “Antioxidant Properties of Different Fractions of Vitex negundo Linn.,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1170-1176. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.069

[36]   E. S. Abdel-Hameed, “Total Phenolic Contents and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Certain Egyptian Ficus species Leaf Samples,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 114, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1271-1277. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.11.005

[37]   T. Yamaguchi, H. Takamura, T. Matoba and J. Terao, “HPLC Method for Evaluation of the Free Radical-Scavenging Activity of Foods by Using 1,1-diphe-nyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,” Bioscience Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. 62, No. 8, 1988, pp. 1201-1204.

[38]   A. Kumaran and J. Karunakaran, “In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts of Five Phyllanthus Species from India,” LWT—Food Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2007, pp. 344-352. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2005.09.011

[39]   C. Wong, H. Li, K. Cheng and F. Chen, “A Systematic Survey of Antioxidant Activity of 30 Chinese Medicinal Plants Using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2006, pp. 705-711. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.049

[40]   H. Wang, G. Cao and R. L. Prior, “Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 3, 1996, pp. 701-705. doi:10.1021/jf950579y

[41]   G. Cao, E. Sofic and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant and ProOxidant Behavior of Flavonoids: Structure-Activity Relationships,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1997, pp. 749-760. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(96)00351-6

[42]   S. Mier, J. Kanner, B. Akiri and S. P. Hadas, “Determination and Involvement of Aqueous Reducing Compounds in Oxidative Defense Systems of Various Senescing Leaves,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 43, No. 7, 1995, pp. 1813-1817. doi:10.1021/jf00055a012

[43]   C. Rice-Evans, N. J. Miller and G. Paganga, “StructureAntioxidant Activity Relationship of Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids,” Free Radical Biological and Medicine, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1996, pp. 933-956. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(95)02227-9

[44]   G. Top?u, M. Ay, A. Bilici, C. Sarikurkcu, M. Ozturk and A. Ulubelen, “A New Flavone from Antioxidant Extracts of Pistacia terebinthus,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 103, No. 3, 2007, pp. 816-822. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.09.028

[45]   B. Halliwell, “Reactive Oxygen Species in Living Systems: Source, Biochemistry, and Role in Human Disease,” The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 91, No. 3, 1991, pp. 14-22. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(91)90279-7

[46]   M. Ismail, E. Manickam, A. Danial, A. Rahmat and A. Yahaya, “Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Strobilanthes crispus Leaf Extract,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2000, pp. 536542. doi:10.1016/S0955-2863(00)00108-X

[47]   B. Tepe, M. Sokmen, H. A. Akpulat, O. Yumrutas and A. Sokmen, “Screening of Antioxidative Properties of the Methanolic Extracts of Pelargonium endlicherianum Fenzl., Verbascum wiedemannianum Fisch. & Mey., Sideritis libanotica Labill. Subsp. linearis (Bentham) Borm., Centaurea mucronifera DC. and Hieracium cappadocicum Freyn from Turkish flora,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2006, pp. 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.046

[48]   B. Sultana, F. Anwar and R. Przybylski, “Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Components Present in Barks of Azadirachta indica, Terminalia arjuna, Aacacia nilotica, and Eugenia jambolana Lam, trees,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1106-1114. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.019

[49]   G. C. Yen and H. Y. Chen, “Comparison of Antimutagenic Effect of Various Tea Extracts,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1994, pp. 54-58.

[50]   H. Kaur and J. Perkins, “The Free Radical Chemistry of Food Additives,” In: O. I. Aruoma and B. Halliwell, Eds., Free Radicals and Food Additives, Taylor and Francis, London, 1991, pp. 17-35.

[51]   J. D. Dziezak, “Preservatives: Antioxidants. The Ultimate Answer to Oxidation,” Food Technology, Vol. 40, No. 9, 1986, pp. 94-102.

[52]   C. Manna, S. D’Angelo, V. Migliardi, E. Loffredi, M. Orazio, P. Morrica, P. Galletti and V. Zappia, “Protective Effect of the Phenolic Fraction from Virgin Olive Oils against Oxidative Stress in Human Cells,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 22, 2002, pp. 6521-6526. doi:10.1021/jf020565+

[53]   C. Manna, P. Galletti, V. Cucciolla, G. Montedoro and V. Zappia, “Oilve Oil Hydroxy-Tyrosol Protectsd Human Erythrocytes against Oxidative Damages,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1999, pp. 159-165. doi:10.1016/S0955-2863(98)00085-0

[54]   E. J. Liens, S. Ren, H. H. Bui and R. Wang, “Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis of Phenolic Antioxidant,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1999, pp. 285-294. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00190-7

[55]   A. Djeridane, M. Yousfi, B. Nadjemi, D. Boutassouna, P. Stocker and N. Vidal, “Antioxidant Activity of Some Algerian Medicinal Plants Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2006, pp. 654-660. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.028

[56]   X. Li, X. L. Li and A. G. Zhou, “Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Extracted from Lycium barbarum Fruits in Vitro,” European Polymer Journal, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2007, pp. 488-497. doi:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2006.10.025

[57]   H. Esterbauer, H. Zollner and R. J. Schaur, “Hydroxyalkenals Cytotoxic Products of Lipid Peroxidation,” ISI Altas of Science-Biochemistry, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1988, pp. 311317.

[58]   C. E. Vaca, P. Vodicka and K. Hemminki, “Determination of Malonaldehyde-Modified 2’-deoxyguanosine-3’-monophosphate and DNA by 32P-postlabelling,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1992, pp. 593-599. doi:10.1093/carcin/13.4.593

[59]   F. Liu, V. E. C. Ooi and S. T. Chang, “Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Mushroom Polysaccharide Extracts,” Life Science, Vol. 60, No. 10, 1997, pp. 763-771. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00004-0

[60]   B. A. Igor, I. D. Anatolli, V. B. Aleksander, A. K. Valadimer and I. P. Alla, “Chelating and Free Radical Scavenging Mechanisms of Inhibiting Action of Rutin and Quercetin in Lipid Peroxidation,” Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol. 38, No. 11, 1989, pp. 1763-1769. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(89)90410-3

[61]   J. M. Braughler, L. A. Duncan and R. L. Chase, “The Involvement of Iron in Lipid Peroxidation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 262, No. 22, 1986, pp. 10282-10289.

[62]   L. M. Cheung and P. C. K. Cheung, “Mushroom Extracts with Antioxidant Activity against Lipid Peroxidation,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 89, No. 3, 2005, pp. 403-409. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.02.049

[63]   B. Frei, “Natural Antioxidative in Human Health and Disease,” Academic Press, San Doego, 1994, pp. 1-62.