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 FNS  Vol.3 No.9 , September 2012
Food Sources and Intake of Calcium in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults
Abstract: The present study aimed to assess calcium intake, dietary sources of this nutrient and its adequacy with respect to the dietary reference intake (DRI) in a representative sample of Spanish adults. In this study 418 adults (18 to 60 years) from 15 Spanish provinces were studied. Energy and nutrient intake was determined using a 24-hour recall questionnaire for two days. Adequacy of calcium intake was assessed using the established DRI for calcium. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were measured and the body mass index was calculated. Seventy eight percent of the participants in the study did not meet the DRI for calcium. Additionally, 33.7% of the participants did not meet the 67% of the DRI. The daily intake of calcium was 916.6 ± 288.1 mg/day, which represented the 81.3% of the DRI of calcium. Interestingly, subjects who had higher intake of calcium were taller. Additionally, it has been observed that individuals with normal body weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) had higher intakes of dairy products in comparison with overweight and obese individuals (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). The main food sources of calcium were dairy products (58.7% of calcium), cereals (13.6%) and vegetables (6.5%). Less than 1% (0.5%) of the calcium intake came from dietary supplements. It was observed that individuals who met the DRI for calcium had a significantly higher intake of dairy products (551.3 ± 240.4 g/day) than individuals who did not meet the DRI of calcium (305.0 ± 150.3 g/day). Calcium intake was inadequate in this sample of the adult Spanish population. Therefore, an increase in the consumption of dairy products, as well as cereals, vegetables and food items fortified with calcium seems to be necessary to achieve an adequate intake of calcium and to prevent diseases caused by calcium deficiency.
Cite this paper: P. Estaire, L. González-Rodríguez, A. López-Sobaler and R. Ortega, "Food Sources and Intake of Calcium in a Representative Sample of Spanish Adults," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 9, 2012, pp. 1269-1276. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.39167.
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