OJPChem  Vol.2 No.3 , August 2012
Iron(III)-Mediated AGET ATRP of Methyl Methacrylate in the Absence of Additional Ligand
ABSTRACT
The atom transfer radical polymerization on the mechanism of activator generation by electron transfer (AGET ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of the catalytic systems, namely, CCl4-FeCl3-1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) and CCl4-FeCl3-ascorbic acid (AA) is reported. The living feature of this process was confirmed by obtaining well-defined polymers with controlled molecular weight, narrow molecular weight distribution, and a chain-extension experiment. Both reducing agents, an APH as well as an AA, possess the equal kinetic activitis.

Cite this paper
S. Bulgakova, E. Volgutova and I. Khokhlova, "Iron(III)-Mediated AGET ATRP of Methyl Methacrylate in the Absence of Additional Ligand," Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 99-104. doi: 10.4236/ojpchem.2012.23013.
References
[1]   [1] M. Kato, M. Kamigaito and M. Sawamoto, T. Higashimura, “Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate with the Carbon Tetrachloride/Dichlorotris-(Triphenyl-phosphine) Respectfully Yours, Uthenium(II)/Methylaluminum Bis(2,6ditert-butylphenoxide) Initiating System: Possibility of Living Radical Polymerization,” Macromolecules, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1995, pp. 1721-1723. doi:10.1021/ma00109a056

[2]   J. S. Wang and K. Matyjaszewski, “Controlled/‘Living’ Radical Polymerization. Halogen Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Promoted by a Cu(I)/Cu(II) Redox Process,” Macromolecules, Vol. 28, No. 23, 1995, pp. 79017910. doi:10.1021/ma00127a042

[3]   V. Percec and B. Narboiu, “‘Living’ Radical Polymerization of Styrene Initiated by Arenesulfonyl Chlorides and CuI(bpy)nCl,” Macromolecules, Vol. 28, No. 23, 1995, pp. 7970-7972. doi:10.1021/ma00127a057

[4]   M. Kamigaito, T. Ando and M. Sawamoto, “Metal-Catalyzed Living Radical Polymerization,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 101, No. 12, 2001, pp. 3689-3746. doi:10.1021/cr9901182

[5]   K. Matyjaszewski and J. H. Xia, “Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization,” Chemical Reviews, Vol. 101, No. 9, 2001, pp. 2921-2990. doi:10.1021/cr940534g

[6]   J. Qiu, B. Charleux and K. Matyjaszewski, “Controlled/ Living Radical Polymerization in Aqueous Media: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Systems,” Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 26, No. 10, 2001, pp. 2083-2134. doi:10.1016/S0079-6700(01)00033-8

[7]   W. Jakubowski and K. Matyjaszewski, “Activator Generated by Electron Transfer for Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization,” Macromolecules, Vol. 38, No. 10, 2005, pp. 4139-4146. doi:10.1021/ma047389l

[8]   K. Min, H. F. Gao and K. Matyjaszewski, “Development of an ab Initio Emulsion Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization: From Microemulsion to Emulsion,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 128, No. 32, 2006, pp. 10521-10526. doi:10.1021/ja0629054

[9]   D. X. Wu, Y. F. Yang, X. H. Cheng, L. Liu, J. Tian and H. Y. Zhao, “Mixed Molecular Brushes with PLLA and PS Side Chains Prepared by AGET ATRP and Ring-Opening Polymerization,” Macromolecules, Vol. 39, No. 22, 2006, pp. 7513-7519. doi:10.1021/ma061141+

[10]   P. Kwiatkowski, J. Jurczak, J. Pietrasik, W. Jakubowski, L. Mueller and K. Matyjaszewski, “High Molecular Weight Polymethacrylates by AGET ATRP under High Pressure,” Macromolecules, Vol. 41, No. 4, 2008, pp. 10671069. doi:10.1021/ma702770u

[11]   J. K. Oh, H. C. Dong, R. Zhang, K. Matyjaszewski and H. Schlaad, “Preparation of Nanoparticles of Double-Hydrophilic PEO-PHEMA Block Copolymers by AGET ATRP in Inverse Miniemulsion,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 45, No. 21, 2007, pp. 4764-4772. doi:10.1002/pola.22230

[12]   K. Min, W. Jakubowski and K. Matyjaszewski, “AGET ATRP in the Presence of Air in Miniemulsion and in Bulk,” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2006, pp. 594-598. doi:10.1002/marc.200600060

[13]   L. Zhang, Z. P. Cheng, S. P. Shi, Q. H. Li and X. L. Zhu, “AGET ATRP of Methyl Methacrylate Catalyzed by FeCl3/Iminodiacetic Acid in the Presence of Air,” Polymer, Vol. 49, No. 13-14, 2008, pp. 3054-3059. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.04.057

[14]   L. Zhang, Z. Cheng, F. Tang, Q. Li and X. Zhu, “Iron(III)-Mediated ATRP of Methyl Methacrylate Using Activators Generated by Electron Transfer,” Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 209, No. 16, 2008, pp.1705-1713. doi:10.1002/macp.200800109

[15]   R. Luo and A. Sen, “Electron-Transfer-Induced IronBased Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Styrene Derivatives and Copolymerization of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate,” Macromolecules, Vol. 41, No. 12, 2008, pp. 4514-4518.

[16]   G. Hizal, U. Tunca, S. Aras and H. Mert, “Air-Stable and Recoverable Catalyst for Copper-Catalyzed Controlled/ Living Radical Polymerization of Styrene; In Situ Generation of Cu(I) Species via Electron Transfer Reaction,” Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 44, No. 1, 2006, pp. 77-87. doi:10.1002/pola.21048

[17]   A. Weissberger, E. S. Proskauer, J. A. Riddick and E. E. Toops, “Organic Solvents: Physical Properties and Methods of Purification,” Wiley, New York, 1955.

[18]   S. Bulgakova, E. Tumakova and Yu. Semchikov, “Controlled Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in the Presence of an FeCl3-Complexing Agent System,” Polymer Science Series B (Russia), Vol. 51, No. 9-10, 2009, pp. 389-394. doi:10.1134/S1560090409090103

[19]   S. A. Bulgakova, E. S. Tumakova, A. V. Zhizhikina, S. D. Zaitsev, L. V. Kurushina and Y. D. Semchikov, “Controlled Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates of Various Structures in the Presence of the AIBN-FeCl3-N,NDimethyl-formamide Catalytic System,” Polymer Science Series B (Russia) Vol. 53, No. 1-2, 2011, pp. 57-63. doi:10.1134/S1560090411020011

[20]   S. A. Bulgakova, E. S. Volgutova, E. A. Kiseleva, I. E. Khokhlova and Y. D. Semchikov, “Controlled Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in the Presence of Azobisisobutyronitrile, Iron(III) Chloride, and the Reducing Agent 1-Acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine in Dimethylformamide,” Polymer Science Series B (Russia), Vol. 53, No. 11-12, 2011, pp. 563-567. doi:10.1134/S1560090411110017

[21]   T. Ando, M. Kamigaito and M. Sawamoto, “Iron(II) Chloride Complex for Living Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate,” Macromolecules, Vol. 30, No. 16, 1997, pp. 4507-4510. doi:10.1021/ma961478j.

 
 
Top