Optimization of Office Building Façades in a Warm Summer Continental Climate

ABSTRACT

A typical office building model with conventional use and contemporary building systems was developed for fa?ade optimization in continental climate. Wall, glazing area and window parameters were taken as the main variables. The objective function of optimization task described in this article is the minimization of cooling and heating energy con-sumption. The office building fa?ades optimization was carried out using a combination of IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.5 and GenOpt. The process is described in detail so that the approach may be emulated. A hybrid multidimen-sional optimization algorithm GPSPSOCCHJ was used in calculation process. The optimization results are presented in four quick selection charts to assist architects, designers and real estate developers make suitable early stage fa?ade selection decisions.

A typical office building model with conventional use and contemporary building systems was developed for fa?ade optimization in continental climate. Wall, glazing area and window parameters were taken as the main variables. The objective function of optimization task described in this article is the minimization of cooling and heating energy con-sumption. The office building fa?ades optimization was carried out using a combination of IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.5 and GenOpt. The process is described in detail so that the approach may be emulated. A hybrid multidimen-sional optimization algorithm GPSPSOCCHJ was used in calculation process. The optimization results are presented in four quick selection charts to assist architects, designers and real estate developers make suitable early stage fa?ade selection decisions.

Cite this paper

A. Hani and T. Koiv, "Optimization of Office Building Façades in a Warm Summer Continental Climate,"*Smart Grid and Renewable Energy*, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 222-230. doi: 10.4236/sgre.2012.33031.

A. Hani and T. Koiv, "Optimization of Office Building Façades in a Warm Summer Continental Climate,"

References

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[2] D. Tuhus-Dubrow and M. Krarti, “Genetic-Algorithm Based Approach to Optimize Building Envelope Design for Residential Buildings,” Building and Environment, Vol. 45, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1574-1581. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.01.005

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[4] K. F. Fong, V. I. Hanby and T. T. Chow, “HVAC System Optimization for Energy Management by Evolutionary Programming,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2006, pp. 220-231. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.05.008

[5] H. Jedrzejuk and W. Marks, “Optimization of Shape and Functional Structure of Buildings as Well as Heat Source Utilisation Example,” Building and Environment, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2002, pp. 1249-1253. doi:10.1016/S0360-1323(01)00100-7

[6] G. Rapone and O. Saro, “Optimisation of Curtain Wall Facades for Office Buildings by Means of PSO Algoritm,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 45, 2012, pp. 189-196. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.11.003

[7] N. Djuric, V. Novakovic, J. Holst and Z. Mitrovi, “Optimization of Energy Consumption in Buildings with Hydronic Heating Systems Considering Thermal Comfort by Use of Computer-Based Tools,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2007, pp. 471-477. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.08.009

[8] V. Sambou, B. Lartigue, F. Monchoux and M. Adj, “Thermal Optimization of Multilayered Walls Using Genetic Algorithms,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1031-1036. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.05.007

[9] J. Ma, J. Qin, T. Salsbury and P. Xu, “Demand Reduction in Building Energy Systems Based on Economic Model Predictive Control,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 67, No. 1, 2012, pp. 92-100. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2011.07.052

[10] W. Wang, R. Zmeureanu and H. Rivard, “Applying MultiObjective Genetic Algorithmsin Green Building Design Optimization,” Building and Environment, Vol. 40, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1512-1525. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.11.017

[11] M. Mossolly, K. Ghali and N. Ghaddar, “Optimal Control Strategy for a Multi-Zone Air Conditioning System Using a Genetic Algorithm,” Energy, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009, pp. 58-66. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2008.10.001

[12] L. Lu, W. Cai, L. Xie, S. Li and Y. C. Soh, “HVAC System Optimization—In-Building Section,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 11-22.

[13] L. Magnier and F. Haghighat, “Multiobjective Optimization of Building Design Using TRNSYS Simulations, Genetic Algorithm, and Artificial Neural Network,” Building and Environment, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2010, pp. 739-746. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.08.016

[14] F. Engdahl and D. Johansson, “Optimal Supply Air Temperature with Respect to Energy Use in a Variable Air Volume System,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2004, pp. 205-218. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2003.09.007

[15] E. Asadi, M. G. da Silva, C. H. Antunes and L. Dias, “Multi-Objective Optimization for Building Retrofit Strategies: A Model and an Application,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 44, 2012, pp. 81-87.

[16] G. Zemella, D. De March, M. Borrotti and I. Poli, “Optimised Design of Energy Efficient Building Facades via Evolutionary Neural Networks,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2011, pp. 3297-3302. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.10.006

[17] V. Siddharth, P. V. Ramakrishna, T. Geetha and Anand Sivasubramaniam, “Automatic Generation of Energy Conservation Measures in Buildings Using Genetic Algorithms,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2011, pp. 2718-2726. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.06.028

[18] A. Saporito, A. R. Day, T. G. Karayiannis and F. Parand, “Multi-Parameter Building Thermal Analysis Using the Lattice Method for Global Optimisation,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2001, pp. 267-274. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(00)00091-8

[19] M. Hamdy, A. Hasan and K. Siren, “Impact of Adaptive Thermal Comfort Criteria on Building Energy Use and Cooling Equipment Size Using a Multi-Objective Optimization Scheme,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 9, 2011, pp. 2055-2067. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.04.006

[20] M. Wetter, “BuildOpt—A New Building Energy Simulation Program That is Built on Smooth Models,” Building and Environment, Vol. 40, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1085-1092. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.10.003

[21] A. Hasan, M. Vuolle and K. Siren, “Minimisation of Life Cycle Cost of a Detached House Using Combined Simulation and Optimisation,” Building and Environment, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2008, pp. 2022-2034. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.12.003

[22] H. Voll, T.-A. K?iv, T. Tark and M. Sergejeva, “Cooling Demand in Commercial Buildings—The Influence of Daylight Window Design,” WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010, pp. 101-111.

[23] M. Wetter, “GenOpt(R) Generic Optimization Program, User Manual, Version 3.0.0,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, 2009. doi:10.2172/962948

[24] T. Kalamees and J. Kurnitski, “Estonian Test Reference Year for Energy Calculations,” Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Science, Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2006, pp. 40-58.

[25] EN 15251:2007, “Indoor Environmental Input Parameters for Design and Assessment of Energy Performance of Buildings Addressing Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Environment, Lighting and Acoustics.”

[26] Estonian Government Ordinance No. 258, “Minimum Requirements for Energy Performance of Buildings (20. 12.2007),” RT I 2007.

[27] J. Kurnitski, A. Saari, M. Vuolle, J. Niemel? and T. Kalamees, “Cost Optimal and nZEB Energy Performance Levels for Buildings,” Final Report, 2011.

[28] T. Rosencrantz, “Performance of Energy Efficient Windows and Solar Shading Devices, Evaluation through Measurements and Simulations,” Lund University, Lund, 2005.

[1] P. G. Ellis, B. T. Griffith, N. Long, P. Torcellini and D. Crawley, “Automated Multivariate Optimization Tool for Energy Analysis,” IBPSA SimBuild Conference, Cambridge, 2-4 August 2006, 7 p.

[2] D. Tuhus-Dubrow and M. Krarti, “Genetic-Algorithm Based Approach to Optimize Building Envelope Design for Residential Buildings,” Building and Environment, Vol. 45, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1574-1581. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2010.01.005

[3] Y. Bichiou and M. Krarti, “Optimization of Envelope and HVAC Systems Selection for Residential Buildings,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2011, pp. 3373-3382. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.08.031

[4] K. F. Fong, V. I. Hanby and T. T. Chow, “HVAC System Optimization for Energy Management by Evolutionary Programming,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2006, pp. 220-231. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2005.05.008

[5] H. Jedrzejuk and W. Marks, “Optimization of Shape and Functional Structure of Buildings as Well as Heat Source Utilisation Example,” Building and Environment, Vol. 37, No. 12, 2002, pp. 1249-1253. doi:10.1016/S0360-1323(01)00100-7

[6] G. Rapone and O. Saro, “Optimisation of Curtain Wall Facades for Office Buildings by Means of PSO Algoritm,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 45, 2012, pp. 189-196. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.11.003

[7] N. Djuric, V. Novakovic, J. Holst and Z. Mitrovi, “Optimization of Energy Consumption in Buildings with Hydronic Heating Systems Considering Thermal Comfort by Use of Computer-Based Tools,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2007, pp. 471-477. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2006.08.009

[8] V. Sambou, B. Lartigue, F. Monchoux and M. Adj, “Thermal Optimization of Multilayered Walls Using Genetic Algorithms,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2009, pp. 1031-1036. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.05.007

[9] J. Ma, J. Qin, T. Salsbury and P. Xu, “Demand Reduction in Building Energy Systems Based on Economic Model Predictive Control,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 67, No. 1, 2012, pp. 92-100. doi:10.1016/j.ces.2011.07.052

[10] W. Wang, R. Zmeureanu and H. Rivard, “Applying MultiObjective Genetic Algorithmsin Green Building Design Optimization,” Building and Environment, Vol. 40, No. 11, 2005, pp. 1512-1525. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.11.017

[11] M. Mossolly, K. Ghali and N. Ghaddar, “Optimal Control Strategy for a Multi-Zone Air Conditioning System Using a Genetic Algorithm,” Energy, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2009, pp. 58-66. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2008.10.001

[12] L. Lu, W. Cai, L. Xie, S. Li and Y. C. Soh, “HVAC System Optimization—In-Building Section,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2005, pp. 11-22.

[13] L. Magnier and F. Haghighat, “Multiobjective Optimization of Building Design Using TRNSYS Simulations, Genetic Algorithm, and Artificial Neural Network,” Building and Environment, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2010, pp. 739-746. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.08.016

[14] F. Engdahl and D. Johansson, “Optimal Supply Air Temperature with Respect to Energy Use in a Variable Air Volume System,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2004, pp. 205-218. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2003.09.007

[15] E. Asadi, M. G. da Silva, C. H. Antunes and L. Dias, “Multi-Objective Optimization for Building Retrofit Strategies: A Model and an Application,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 44, 2012, pp. 81-87.

[16] G. Zemella, D. De March, M. Borrotti and I. Poli, “Optimised Design of Energy Efficient Building Facades via Evolutionary Neural Networks,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2011, pp. 3297-3302. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.10.006

[17] V. Siddharth, P. V. Ramakrishna, T. Geetha and Anand Sivasubramaniam, “Automatic Generation of Energy Conservation Measures in Buildings Using Genetic Algorithms,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 10, 2011, pp. 2718-2726. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.06.028

[18] A. Saporito, A. R. Day, T. G. Karayiannis and F. Parand, “Multi-Parameter Building Thermal Analysis Using the Lattice Method for Global Optimisation,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2001, pp. 267-274. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(00)00091-8

[19] M. Hamdy, A. Hasan and K. Siren, “Impact of Adaptive Thermal Comfort Criteria on Building Energy Use and Cooling Equipment Size Using a Multi-Objective Optimization Scheme,” Energy and Buildings, Vol. 43, No. 9, 2011, pp. 2055-2067. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.04.006

[20] M. Wetter, “BuildOpt—A New Building Energy Simulation Program That is Built on Smooth Models,” Building and Environment, Vol. 40, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1085-1092. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.10.003

[21] A. Hasan, M. Vuolle and K. Siren, “Minimisation of Life Cycle Cost of a Detached House Using Combined Simulation and Optimisation,” Building and Environment, Vol. 43, No. 12, 2008, pp. 2022-2034. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2007.12.003

[22] H. Voll, T.-A. K?iv, T. Tark and M. Sergejeva, “Cooling Demand in Commercial Buildings—The Influence of Daylight Window Design,” WSEAS Transactions on Applied and Theoretical Mechanics, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010, pp. 101-111.

[23] M. Wetter, “GenOpt(R) Generic Optimization Program, User Manual, Version 3.0.0,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, 2009. doi:10.2172/962948

[24] T. Kalamees and J. Kurnitski, “Estonian Test Reference Year for Energy Calculations,” Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Science, Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2006, pp. 40-58.

[25] EN 15251:2007, “Indoor Environmental Input Parameters for Design and Assessment of Energy Performance of Buildings Addressing Indoor Air Quality, Thermal Environment, Lighting and Acoustics.”

[26] Estonian Government Ordinance No. 258, “Minimum Requirements for Energy Performance of Buildings (20. 12.2007),” RT I 2007.

[27] J. Kurnitski, A. Saari, M. Vuolle, J. Niemel? and T. Kalamees, “Cost Optimal and nZEB Energy Performance Levels for Buildings,” Final Report, 2011.

[28] T. Rosencrantz, “Performance of Energy Efficient Windows and Solar Shading Devices, Evaluation through Measurements and Simulations,” Lund University, Lund, 2005.