Health  Vol.4 No.8 , August 2012
Risk of overweight and obesity among migrants in Switzerland
ABSTRACT
We assessed the risk of overweight and obesity for six large migrant groups in Switzerland. We used population-based survey data form the Swiss Migrant Health Survey 2010 and the Swiss Health Survey 2007. The sample comprised permanent residents aged 17 - 64 years (n = 14,637). Multivariate logistic regressions have been used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Compared with Swiss nationals, the odds of being obese were 1.97 times higher for Turkish nationals (CI-95 1.26, 3.07), 1.73 times higher for Kosovan nationals (CI-95 1.09, 2.74) and 3.42 times higher for Serbs (CI-95 2.28, 5.12). The chance of being obese was not statistically different between Swiss nationals and those from Portugal, Italy, and Germany. The chance of being overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25) was higher for migrants than for Swiss nationals. The respective odds were 1.54 times higher for nationals from Portugal (CI-95 1.13, 2.11), 2.05 times higher for those from Turkey (CI-95 1.50, 2.78), 2.67 times higher for those from Serbia (CI-95 1.93, 3.68), 2.68 times higher for those from Kosovo (CI-95 2.01, 3.56), and 2.16 times higher for nationals from Italy (CI-95 1.54, 3.02). We suggest that preventive initiatives should take into account the specific needs of migrants as well as the needs of persons with low education from all nationalities.

Cite this paper
Volken, T. and Rüesch, P. (2012) Risk of overweight and obesity among migrants in Switzerland. Health, 4, 514-521. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.48082.
References
[1]   Arnlov, J., Sundstrom, J., Ingelsson, E. and Lind, L. (2011) Impact of BMI and the metabolic syndrome on the risk of diabetes in middle-aged men. Diabetes Care, 34, 61-65. doi:10.2337/dc10-0955

[2]   Suka, M., Miwa, Y., Ono, Y. and Yanagisawa, H. (2011) BMI, waist circumference, and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 16, 90-96. doi:10.1007/s12199-010-0169-7

[3]   Denisov, L.N., Nasonova, V.A., Koreshkov, G.G. and Kashevarova, N.G. (2010) Role of obesity in the development of osteoarthrosis and concomitant diseases. Terapevticheski Arkhiv, 82, 34-37.

[4]   Hsu, H.S., Liu, C.S., Pi-Sunyer, F.X., Lin, C.H., Li, C.I., Lin, C.C., Li, T.C. and Lin, W.Y. (2011) The associations of different measurements of obesity with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 41, 393-404. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02421.x

[5]   Yatsuya, H., Toyoshima, H., Yamagishi, K., Tamakoshi, K., Taguri, M., Harada, A., Ohashi, Y., Kita, Y., Naito, Y., Yamada, M., et al. (2010) Body mass index and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction in a relatively lean population: Meta-analysis of 16 Japanese cohorts using individual data. Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, 3, 498-505.

[6]   WHO/FAO (2005) Fruit and vegetables for health. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop, 1-3 September 2004, Kobe.

[7]   Caprio, S., Daniels, S.R., Drewnowski, A., Kaufman, F. R., Palinkas, L.A., Rosenbloom, A.L. and Schwimmer, J.B. (2008) Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: Implications for prevention and treatment. Obesity (Silver Spring), 16, 2566-2577. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.398

[8]   Mejean, C., Traissac, P., Eymard-Duvernay, S., El Ati, J., Delpeuch, F. and Maire, B. (2007) Influence of socio-economic and lifestyle factors on overweight and nutrition-related diseases among Tunisian migrants versus non-migrant Tunisians and French. BMC Public Health, 7, 265. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-265

[9]   Faeh, D., Braun, J. and Bopp, M. (2011) Prevalence of obesity in Switzerland 1992-2007: The impact of education, income and occupational class. Obesity Reviews, 12, 151-166. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00793.x

[10]   Singh, G.K., Siahpush, M., Hiatt, R.A. and Timsina, L.R. (2011) Dramatic increases in obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index among ethnic-immigrant and social class groups in the United States, 1976-2008. Journal of Community Health, 36, 94-110. doi:10.1007/s10900-010-9287-9

[11]   Brussaard, J.H., Van Erp-Baart, M.A., Brants, H.A., Hulshof, K.F. and Lowik, M.R. (2001) Nutrition and health among migrants in The Netherlands. Public Health Nutrition, 4, 659-664. doi:10.1079/PHN2001149

[12]   Dijkshoorn, H., Nierkens, V. and Nicolaou, M. (2008) Risk groups for overweight and obesity among Turkish and Moroccan migrants in The Netherlands. Public Health, 122, 625-630. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2007.08.016

[13]   Van Loan, M.D., Schaefer, S.E., Salazar, M., Bruhn, C., Saviano, D. and Boushey, C. (2009) Influence of race, acculturation, and socioeconomic status on tendency toward overweight in Asian-American and Mexican-American early adolescent females. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 11, 188-197. doi:10.1007/s10903-008-9150-6

[14]   Wandell, P.E., Ponzer, S., Johansson, S.E., Sundquist, K. and Sundquist, J. (2004) Country of birth and body mass index: a national study of 2000 immigrants in Sweden. European Journal of Epidemiology, 19, 1005-1010. doi:10.1007/s10654-004-0159-4

[15]   Wandell, P.E., Wajngot, A., De Faire, U. and Hellenius, M.L. (2007) Increased prevalence of diabetes among immigrants from non-European countries in 60-year-old men and women in Sweden. Diabetes & Metabolism, 33, 30-36. doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2006.07.001

[16]   Ujcic-Voortman, J.K., Bos, G., Baan, C.A., Verhoeff, A.P. and Seidell, J.C. (2011) Obesity and body fat distribution: Ethnic differences and the role of socio-economic status. Obesity Facts, 4, 53-60. doi:10.1159/000324555

[17]   BFS (2010) Die bev?lkerung der Schweiz 2009. Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel.

[18]   Caperchione, C.M., Kolt, G.S. and Mummery, W.K. (2009) Physical activity in culturally and linguistically diverse migrant groups to Western society: A review of barriers, enablers and experiences. Sports Medicine, 39, 167-177. doi:10.2165/00007256-200939030-00001

[19]   Ceballos, N. and Czyzewska, M. (2010) Body image in Hispanic/Latino vs European American adolescents: Implications for treatment and prevention of obesity in underserved populations. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 21, 823-838. doi:10.1353/hpu.0.0333

[20]   Kolcic, I. and Polasek, O. (2009) Healthy migrant effect within Croatia. Collegium Antropologicum, 33, 141-145.

[21]   Liu, J.H., Probst, J.C., Harun, N., Bennett, K.J. and Torres, M.E. (2009) Acculturation, physical activity, and obesity among Hispanic adolescents. Ethnic Health, 14, 509-525. doi:10.1080/13557850902890209

[22]   Park, S.Y., Murphy, S.P., Sharma, S. and Kolonel, L.N. (2005) Dietary intakes and health-related behaviours of Korean American women born in the USA and Korea: The multiethnic cohort study. Public Health Nutrition, 8, 904-911. doi:10.1079/PHN2005740

[23]   Olvera, N., Suminski, R. and Power, T.G. (2005) Intergenerational perceptions of body image in Hispanics: Role of BMI, gender, and acculturation. Obesity Research, 13, 1970-1979. doi:10.1038/oby.2005.242

[24]   Nicolaou, M., Doak, C.M., Van Dam, R.M., Brug, J., Stronks, K. and Seidell, J.C. (2009) Cultural and social influences on food consumption in Dutch residents of Turkish and Moroccan origin: A qualitative study. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 41, 232-241. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2008.05.011

[25]   Kirchengast, S. and Schober, E. (2006) Migration as risk factor of overweight and adipositas in children and adolescents. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 64, 411-421.

[26]   Kirchengast, S. and Schober, E. (2006) To be an immigrant: A risk factor for developing overweight and obesity during childhood and adolescence? Journal of Biosocial Science, 38, 695-705. doi:10.1017/S0021932005027094

[27]   Akresh, I.R. (2008) Overweight and obesity among foreign-born and US-born Hispanics. Biodemography and Social Biology, 54, 183-199.

[28]   Marques-Vidal, P., Vollenweider, P., Waeber, G. and Paccaud, F. (2011) Prevalence of overweight and obesity among migrants in Switzerland: Association with country of origin. Public Health Nutrition, 14, 1-9.

[29]   BFS (2010) Statistik der bev?lkerung und der Haushalte (STATPOP). Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel.

[30]   Sofianou, A., Fung, T.T. and Tucker, K.L. (2011) Differences in diet pattern adherence by nativity and duration of US residence in the Mexican-American population. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111, 1563-1569 e1562.

[31]   Shin, C.N. and Lach, H. (2011) Nutritional issues of Korean Americans. Clinical Nursing Research, 20, 162-180. doi:10.1177/1054773810393334

[32]   Neuhouser, M.L., Thompson, B., Coronado, G.D. and Solomon, C.C. (2004) Higher fat intake and lower fruit and vegetables intakes are associated with greater acculturation among Mexicans living in Washington State. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 51-57. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2003.10.015

[33]   Gregory-Mercado, K.Y., Staten, L.K., Ranger-Moore, J., Thomson, C.A., Will, J.C., Ford, E.S., Guillen, J., Larkey, L.K., Giuliano, A.R. and Marshall, J. (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption of older Mexican-American women is associated with their acculturation level. Ethnic Disease, 16, 89-95.

[34]   Allison, P.D. (2001) Missing data. Sage, Thousand Oaks.

[35]   Volken, T., Schaffert, R. and Ruesch, P. (2011) Need for weight management in Switzerland: Findings from National Blood Pressure Week 2009. BMC Public Health, 11, 1-9. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-473

[36]   Scheider, H., Venetz, W. and Gallani Bernardo, C. (2009) Overweight and obesity in Switzerland. Part 1: Cost of burden of adult obesity in 2007. HealthEcon, Basel.

[37]   Ahmad, O.B., Bosch-Pinto, C., Lopez, A.D., Murray, C. J., Lozano, R. and Inoue, M. (2001) Age standardization of rates: A new WHO standard. GPE Discussion Paper Series, 31. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[38]   Oza-Frank, R., Roshania, R. and Narayan, K.M.V. (2008) Age at arrival and risk of obesity among us immigrants. Obesity, 16, 2669-2675. doi:10.1038/oby.2008.425

[39]   Bennett, G.G., Wolin, K.Y., Askew, S., Fletcher, R. and Emmons, K.M. (2007) Immigration and obesity among lower income blacks. Obesity, 15, 1391-1394. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.166

[40]   Ahluwalia, I.B., Ford, E.S., Link, M. and Bolen, J.C. (2007) Acculturation, weight, and weight-related behaviors among Mexican Americans in the United States. Ethnic Disease, 17, 643-649.

[41]   Fernandez, A., Wang, S.P., Quan, J.D. and Kanaya, A.M. (2011) Asian Americans and obesity in California: A protective effect of biculturalism. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13, 276-283. doi:10.1007/s10903-010-9426-5

[42]   Faeh, D., Braun, J. and Bopp, M. (2009) Underestimation of obesity prevalence in Switzerland: Comparison of two methods for correction of self-report. Swiss Medical Weekly, 139, 752-756.

[43]   Faeh, D., Marques-Vidal, P., Chiolero, A. and Bopp, M. (2008) Obesity in Switzerland: Do estimates depend on how body mass index has been assessed? Swiss Medical Weekly, 138, 204-210.

[44]   Schuler, M., Dessemontet, P. and Joye, D. (2005) Die raumgliederung der schweiz. Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Neuchatel.

 
 
Top