Health  Vol.4 No.8 , August 2012
Adjuvant effect of a synthetic Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate on chloroquine phosphate, against Plasmodium berghei
Abstract: Effect a synthetic Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate (AMS) has on chloroquine was tested. Thirty, Plasmodium berghei-infected mice, in three experimental groups (7 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) of 10 mice each, were treated. Two subgroups, in each experiment, were treated with chloroquine and with a chloroquine-AMS drug formulation, respectively. Five of the infected mice served as controls. Parasitaemia (%), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cells (RBC), rectal temperature and body weight were assessed. Parasitaemia of subgroups treated at 7 mg/kg were higher than that of the control. Also, at 7 mg/kg, there was mortality with chloroquine (20%) and with the chloroquine-AMS drug (80%). At 5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, the AMS significantly (P < 0.05) improved ability of chloroquine to reduce plamodial parasitaemia, from 2.46 ± 0.21 to 1.57 ± 0.25 and from 3.82 ± 0.06 to 2.12 ± 0.08. It also significantly (P < 0.05) improved means of Hb and RBC from 12.25 ± 0.27 and 88.99 ± 5.72 to 12.68 ± 0.18 and 92.91 ± 4.01 and from 10.18 ± 3.00 and 63.39 ± 18.02 to 12.98 ± 0.47 and 95.23 ± 5.32. Body weight increased at 5 mg/kg, from 29.06 ± 1.95 to 32.66 ± 2.10 kg (P < 0.05) while at 3 mg/kg, rectal temperature reduced from 37.35 ± 0.32 to 36.84oC ± 0.23oC (P < 0.05). These results suggest, AMS worsened chloroquine toxicity at 7 mg/kg but potentiated its antiplasmodial activities at the lower doses.
Cite this paper: Ezeibe, M. , Elendu-Eleke, N. , Okoroafor, O. and Ngene, A. (2012) Adjuvant effect of a synthetic Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate on chloroquine phosphate, against Plasmodium berghei. Health, 4, 448-451. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.48071.

[1]   Singh, B., Kim-Sung, L. and Matusop, A. (2004) A large focus of naturally acquired plasmodium knowlesi infection in humanbeings. Lancet, 363, 1017-1024. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15836-4

[2]   Mueller, I., Zimmerman, P.A. and Reeder, J.C. (2007) Plasmodium malria and plasmodium ovale—“bashful malaria parasite”. Trends in Parasitology, 23, 278-283. doi:10.1016/

[3]   Vincke, I.H. and Lips, M. (1948) Plasmodium berghei. Annales de la Societe Belge de Medecine Tropical, 28, 97-104.

[4]   Escalante, A. and Ayala, F. (1994) Phylogeny of the malarial genus, plasmodium, derived from Rna gene sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 91, 11373-11377. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.24.11373

[5]   Collins, W.E. and Aikawa, M. (1977) Plasmodia of non-human primates. In: Kreier, J.P., Ed., Parasitic Protozoa, Academic Press, New York.

[6]   Chen, Q., Schlichtherle, M. and Wahlgren, M. (2000) Molecular aspects of severe malaria. Clinical Microbiology Review, 13, 439-450. doi:10.1128/CMR.13.3.439-450.2000

[7]   Snow, R.W., Querra, C.A., Noor, A.M., Myint, H.Y. and Hay, S.I. (2005) The global distribution of clinical episodes of plasmodium falciparium malaria. Nature, 434, 214-217. doi:10.1038/nature03342

[8]   Etling, M., Mcfarland, D.A., Schultz, L.J. and Chitsulo, L. (1994) Economic impact of malaria in malawian households. Annals of Tropical Medecine and Parasitology, 45, 74-79.

[9]   WHO (2009) Economic costs of malaria: Roll back malaria WHO partnership.

[10]   Wards, B.P. and Fidock, D. (2004) Understanding how the malaria parasite resists chloroquine. Molecular Cell, 15, 867-877.

[11]   Wellems, T.E. (2002) Plasmodium, chloroquine resistance and the search for a replacement antimalarial drug. Science, 298, 124-126. doi:10.1126/science.1078167

[12]   Technical Literature-Veegum Inc. (1992) The versatile ingredient for pharmaceutical formulations.

[13]   Brent, W., Gigi, H.R., Khalid, H.I. and John, C.R. (2001) What do we realy know about antibiotic pharmacdynamics? Pharmacotherapy, 21, 3028-3088.

[14]   Ezeibe, M.C.O., Anosa, G.N., Okorie, O.K., Elendu-Eleke, N.P., Okoroafor, O.N., Ngene, A.A. and Chikelu, O.N. (2012) Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate enhances antibacterial activity of ampicilline trihydrate, against Salmonella gallinarum.

[15]   Ezeibe, M.C.O. (2011) The synthetic Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate. Great AP Express Pub., Nsukka.

[16]   Ezeibe, M.C.O., Ofafor, U.C., Okoroafor, O.N., Eze, J.I., Ngene, A.A., Animoke, P.C. and Mbuko, I.J. (2011) Effect of Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate on anticoccidial activity of sulphadimidin. Tropical Veterinary, 29, 41-44.

[17]   Emerson, L.R., Martin, E.M., Rodger, K., Martin, D., Kyle, E., Vahey, M. and Wirth, D.F. (2001) Relationship between chloroquine toxicity and acquisition in Saccharomyces cerevisae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46, 114-117.

[18]   Hempelmann, E. (2007) Hemozoin biocrystallization in Plasmodium falciparum and the antimalarial activity of crystallization inhibitors. Parasitol Research, 100, 671-676. doi:10.1007/s00436-006-0313-x

[19]   Wildig, J., Michon, P., Siba, P. and Melombo, M. (2006) Parvovirus B 19 infection contrbutes to severe anaemia in young children in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Infectious Diswases, 194, 146-153.

[20]   Carter, R. and Diggs, C.I. (1977) Plasmodia of rodents in: Parasitic protozoa. Kreier, J.P., Ed., Academic Press, New York.