ABSTRACT Mast cells were observed in autopsies from 11 females and 8 males. We confirm earlier observations that mast cells are more frequent in close vicinity to MS-plaques. In these plaque-border zone areas, defined as the area within 1 mm distance of the actual plaques, the average number of mast cells was 2.34/mm2 in males and 4.77/mm2 in females, which in average is appr. 10 times more than earlier observed in MS. The difference in number of mast cells between females and males is significant (p < 0.005) and is of interest since females are more inclined to developing MS than males. Mast cells were rare in areas without visible plaques. The mast cells were preferably located close to capillaries and venules. A mechanism for the probable role of mast cells, based on diet-factors and mast cell mediators in the pathogenesis of MS is discussed.
Cite this paper
Krüger, P. and Mørk, S. (2012) Mast cells and multiple sclerosis in females and males. World Journal of Neuroscience, 2, 145-149. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2012.23022.
 Ibrahim, M.Z.M., Reder, A.T., Lawand, R., Takash, W. and Sallouh-Khatib, S. (1996) The mast cells of the multiple sclerosis brain. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 70, 131-138.
 Krüger, P.G. (2001) Mast cells and multiple sclerosis: A quantitative analysis. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 27, 275-280.
 Krüger, P.G., B?, L., Myhr, K.M., Karlsen, ?E., Taule, A., Nyland, H.I. and M?rk, S. (1990) Mast cells and multiple sclerosis: A light and electron microscopic study of mast cells in multiple sclerosis emphasizing staining procedures. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 81, 31-36.
 Neumann, J. (1890) über das vorkommen der sogenannten mastzellen bei pathologischen ver?nderungen des gehirns. Virchows Arch, 122, 378-380.
 Olsson, Y. (1974) Mast cells in plaques of multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 50, 611-618.
 Theoharides, T.C. (1990) Mast cells: The immune gate to the brain. Life Sciences, 46, 607-617.
 Toms, R., Weiner, H.L. and Johnson, D. (1990) Identification of IgE-positive cells and mast cells in frozen sections of multiple sclerosis brains. Neuroimmunology, 30, 167-177.
 Krüger, P.G. and Nyland, H.I. (1995) The role of mast cells and diet in the onset and maintenance of multiple sclerosis: A hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 44, 66-69.
 Mohr, D. (2004) Association between stressful events and exacerbation in multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis, British Medical Journal, 328, 731-733.
 Zappulla, J.P., Arock, M., Mars, L.T. and Liblau, R.S. (2002) Mast cells: Neurotargets for multiple sclerosis therapy? Journal of Neuroimmunology, 131, 5-20.
 Rozniecki, J.J., Hauser, S.L., Stein, M., Lincoln, R. and Theoharides, T.C. (1995) Elevated mast cell tryptase in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients. Annals of Neurology, 37, 63-66.
 Gross, M. (2010) Piercing together the causes of lives torn apart. Oxford Today, 22, 20-21.
 Wang, H. and Pevsner, J. (1999) Detection of endogenous biotin in various tissues: Novel functions in the hippocampus and implications for its use in avidin-biotin technology. Cell and Tissue Research, 296, 511-516.
 Feinberg, A.P. (2007) Phenotypic plasticity and the epigenetics of human disease. Nature, 447, 433-440.
 Hayes, C.E., Cantorna, M.T. and DeLuca, H.F. (1997) Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 226, 21-27.
 Easton, M.D.L., Luszniak, D. and Von der Geest, E. (2002) Preliminary examination of contaminant loadings in farmed salmon, wild salmon and commercial salmon feed. Chemosphere, 46, 1053-1074.
 Hamilton, M.C., Hites, R.A., Schwager, S.J., Foran, J..A, Knuth, B.A. and Carpenter, D.O. (2005) Lipid composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 8622-8629.
 Olsen, Y. and Skjervold, H. (1995) Variation in content of ω3 fatty acids in farmed Atlantic salmon, with special emphasis on effects of non-dietary factors. Aquaculture Internationale, 3, 22-35.
 Burell, A.M., Handel, A.E., Ramaqopalan, S.V. and Ebers, G.C. (2011) Epigenetic mechasnisms in multiple sclerosis and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Discovery Medicine, 11, 187-196.
 Bills, C.E. (1927) Antirachite substances. VI. The distribution of vitamin D with some notes on its possible origins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 72, 751-758.
 Orton, S.M., Herrera, B.M., Yee, I.M., Valdar, W., Ramagopalan, S.V., Sadovnick, A.D. and Ebers, G.C. (2006) Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada, a longitudinal study. Lancet Neurology, 5, 932-936.
 Bjorling, D.E. and Wang, Z.Y. (2001) Estrogen and neuroinflammantion. Urology, 57, 40-46.
 Couturier, N., Zappulla, J.P., Lauwers-Cances, V., Uro-Coste, E., Delisle, M.-B., Clanet, M., Montagne, L., Van der Valk, P., B?, L. and Liblau, R.S. (2008) Mast cell transcripts are increased within and outside multiple sclerosis lesions. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 195, 176-185.
 Logothetis, L., Mylonas, I.A., Baloyannis, S., Pashalidou, M., Orologas, A., Zafeiropoulos, A., Kosta, V. and Theoharides, T.C. (2005) A pilot, open label, clinical trial using hydroxyzine in multiple sclerosis. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, 18, 771-778.
 Arvy, L. (1955) Effect of injection of estrogens on the mast cells of the white mouse. Nature, 175, 506.
 Theoharides, T.C., Dimitriadou, V., Letourneau, R., Rozniecki, J.J., Vliagoftis, H. and Boucher, W. (1993) Synergistic action of estradiol and myelin basic protein on mast cell secretion and brain myelin changes resembling early stages of demyelination. Neuroscience, 57, 861-871.
 Hellstr?m, B. and Holmgren, H. (1947) En kvantitativ analys av mastcellsf?rekomsten I hud och hj?rta hos m?nniska. Svenska L?kartidn, 44, 617-630.
 Sundberg, M. (1955) On the mast cells in the human vascular wall. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica, 107, 1-81
 Johnson, D., Seeldrayers, P.A. and Weiner, H.L. (1988) The role of mast cells in demyelination. I. Myelin proteins are degraded by mast cell proteases and myelin basic protein and P2 can stimulate mast cell degranulation. Brain Research, 444, 195-198.
 Diamant, B. and Krüger, P.G. (1976) Histamine release from isolated rat peritoneal mast cells induced by adenosine-5-triphosphate. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 71, 291-302.
 Krüger, P.G., Mahata, S.K. and Helle, K.B. (2003) Catestatin (CgA344-364) stimulates rat mast cell release of histamine in a manner comparable to mastoparan and other cationic charged neuropeptides. Regulatory Peptides, 114, 29-35.
 Krüger, P.G., Aas, P., Onarheim, J. and Helle, K.B. (1982) Neurotensin-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells in vitro. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 114, 467-469.
 Shanahan, F., Denburg, J.A., Fox, J., Bienenstock, J. and Befus, D. (1985) Mast cell heterogeneity: Effects of neuroenteric peptides on histamine release. The Journal of Immunology, 135, 1331-1337.
 Theoharides, T.C. and Cochrane, D.E. (2004) Critical role of mast cells in inflammatory diseases and the effect of acute stress. Journal of Immunology, 146, 1-12.