On the Absence of Carrier Drift in Two-Terminal Devices and the Origin of Their Lowest Resistance Per Carrier R_{k}=h/Q^{2}

Affiliation(s)

Group of Microsystems and Electronic Materials, GMME-CEMDATIC, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain.

Group of Microsystems and Electronic Materials, GMME-CEMDATIC, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT

After a criticism on today’s model for electrical noise in resistors, we pass to use a Quantum-compliant model based on the discreteness of electrical charge in a complex Admittance. From this new model we show that carrier drift viewed as charged particle motion in response to an electric field is unlike to occur in bulk regions of Solid-State devices where carriers react as dipoles against this field. The absence of the shot noise that charges drifting in resistors should produce and the evolution of the Phase Noise with the active power existing in the resonators of L-C oscillators, are two effects added in proof for this conduction model without carrier drift where the resistance of any two-terminal device becomes discrete and has a minimum value per carrier that is the Quantum Hall resistance R_{k}=h/q^{2} Ω

After a criticism on today’s model for electrical noise in resistors, we pass to use a Quantum-compliant model based on the discreteness of electrical charge in a complex Admittance. From this new model we show that carrier drift viewed as charged particle motion in response to an electric field is unlike to occur in bulk regions of Solid-State devices where carriers react as dipoles against this field. The absence of the shot noise that charges drifting in resistors should produce and the evolution of the Phase Noise with the active power existing in the resonators of L-C oscillators, are two effects added in proof for this conduction model without carrier drift where the resistance of any two-terminal device becomes discrete and has a minimum value per carrier that is the Quantum Hall resistance R

Cite this paper

J. Izpura, "On the Absence of Carrier Drift in Two-Terminal Devices and the Origin of Their Lowest Resistance Per Carrier R_{k}=h/Q^{2}," *Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 3 No. 8, 2012, pp. 762-773. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2012.38100.

J. Izpura, "On the Absence of Carrier Drift in Two-Terminal Devices and the Origin of Their Lowest Resistance Per Carrier R

References

[1] J. B. Johnson, “The Schottky Effect in Low Frequency Circuits,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1925, pp. 71-85. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.26.71

[2] W. Schottky, “Small-Shot Effect and Flicker Effect,” Physical Review, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1926, pp. 74-103. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.28.1331

[3] J. B. Johnson, “Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Con- ductors,” Physical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1928, pp. 97- 109. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.32.97

[4] J. I. Izpura and J. Malo, “A Fluctuation-Dissipation Model for Electrical Noise,” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 112-120. doi:10.4236/cs.2011.23017

[5] H. B. Callen and T. A. Welton, “Irreversibility and Generalized Noise,” Physical Review, Vol. 83. No. 1, 1951, pp. 34-40. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.83.34

[6] J. I. Izpura, “Revisiting the Classics to Recover the Physi- cal Sense in Electrical Noise,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2011, pp. 457-462. doi:10.4236/jmp.2011.26055

[7] H. Nyquist, “Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors,” Physical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1928, pp. 110-113. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.32.110

[8] J. I. Izpura, “On the Electrical Origin of Flicker Noise in Vacuum Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumenta- tion and Measurement, Vol. 58, No. 10, 2009, pp. 3592- 3601. doi:10.1109/TIM.2009.2018692

[9] J. I. Izpura, “1/f Electrical Noise in Planar Resistors: The Joint Effect of a Backgating Noise and an Instrumental Disturbance,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2008, pp. 509-517. doi:10.1109/TIM.2007.911642

[10] J. I. Izpura and J. Malo, “Thermodynamical Phase Noise in Oscillators Based on L-C Resonators (Foundations),” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 48-60. doi:10.4236/cs.2012.31008

[11] J. Malo and J. I. Izpura, “Thermodynamical Phase Noise in Oscillators Based on L-C Resonators,” Circuits and Systems Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 61-71. doi:10.4236/cs.2012.31009

[12] R. Nave, “Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law,” 2005. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/ohmmic.html

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switched_capacitor

[14] I. Langmuir, “The Effect of Space Charge and Initial Velocities on the Potential Distribution and Thermionic Current between Parallel Plane Electrodes,” Physical Re- view, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1923, pp. 419-435. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.21.419

[15] F. Overney, B. Jeanneret, B. Jeckelmann, B. M. Wood and J. Schurr, “The Quantized Hall Resistance: Towards a Primary Standard of Impedance,” Metrologia, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2006, pp. 409-413. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/43/5/011

[16] A. K. Jonscher, “Dielectric Relaxation in Solids,” Chelsea Dielectrics Press Ltd., London, 1983.

[1] J. B. Johnson, “The Schottky Effect in Low Frequency Circuits,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 26, No. 1, 1925, pp. 71-85. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.26.71

[2] W. Schottky, “Small-Shot Effect and Flicker Effect,” Physical Review, Vol. 28, No. 6, 1926, pp. 74-103. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.28.1331

[3] J. B. Johnson, “Thermal Agitation of Electricity in Con- ductors,” Physical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1928, pp. 97- 109. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.32.97

[4] J. I. Izpura and J. Malo, “A Fluctuation-Dissipation Model for Electrical Noise,” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2011, pp. 112-120. doi:10.4236/cs.2011.23017

[5] H. B. Callen and T. A. Welton, “Irreversibility and Generalized Noise,” Physical Review, Vol. 83. No. 1, 1951, pp. 34-40. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.83.34

[6] J. I. Izpura, “Revisiting the Classics to Recover the Physi- cal Sense in Electrical Noise,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 2, No. 6, 2011, pp. 457-462. doi:10.4236/jmp.2011.26055

[7] H. Nyquist, “Thermal Agitation of Electric Charge in Conductors,” Physical Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1928, pp. 110-113. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.32.110

[8] J. I. Izpura, “On the Electrical Origin of Flicker Noise in Vacuum Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumenta- tion and Measurement, Vol. 58, No. 10, 2009, pp. 3592- 3601. doi:10.1109/TIM.2009.2018692

[9] J. I. Izpura, “1/f Electrical Noise in Planar Resistors: The Joint Effect of a Backgating Noise and an Instrumental Disturbance,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2008, pp. 509-517. doi:10.1109/TIM.2007.911642

[10] J. I. Izpura and J. Malo, “Thermodynamical Phase Noise in Oscillators Based on L-C Resonators (Foundations),” Circuits and Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 48-60. doi:10.4236/cs.2012.31008

[11] J. Malo and J. I. Izpura, “Thermodynamical Phase Noise in Oscillators Based on L-C Resonators,” Circuits and Systems Vol. 3, No. 1, 2012, pp. 61-71. doi:10.4236/cs.2012.31009

[12] R. Nave, “Microscopic View of Ohm’s Law,” 2005. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/ohmmic.html

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switched_capacitor

[14] I. Langmuir, “The Effect of Space Charge and Initial Velocities on the Potential Distribution and Thermionic Current between Parallel Plane Electrodes,” Physical Re- view, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1923, pp. 419-435. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.21.419

[15] F. Overney, B. Jeanneret, B. Jeckelmann, B. M. Wood and J. Schurr, “The Quantized Hall Resistance: Towards a Primary Standard of Impedance,” Metrologia, Vol. 43, No. 5, 2006, pp. 409-413. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/43/5/011

[16] A. K. Jonscher, “Dielectric Relaxation in Solids,” Chelsea Dielectrics Press Ltd., London, 1983.