ABSTRACT During earthquakes and strong underground explosions it is possible to observe two different effects. The first one is connected with the destruction of media, and this causes acoustic and later hybrid acoustic-electromagnetic waves in an epicenter in the atmosphere and in the ionosphere. Another one is connected with cracks in crystals of rocks, which seems more interesting, because it is possible to recognize the natural earthquakes and industrial explosions. In the first effects due to nonlinear elastic modules the acoustic waves move through the lithosphere and transform their spectra from VLF (very low frequencies ~ 1 - 10 kHz) at the depth of about 30 km into the lower part of ELF (extremely low frequencies, ~ 3 Hz - 1 kHz) on the Earth’s surface, then they pass the atmosphere and penetrate into the ionosphere. During the nonlinear acoustic passage through the atmosphere and the ionosphere, the spectrum transforms from ELF into ULF (ultra low frequencies, < 1 Hz) range. In this review article the classification of spectrum and analysis of two cases of the destruction of rocks in the lithosphere is presented. The rocks possess piezoelectric and piezomagnetic properties. In this case the electromagnetic emission is excited by the fracturing in plates of crystals. The difference of emission from piezoelectric and magnetic plates in cases of industrial explosions and natural seismic events including volcanic phenomena gives a possibility to analyze the method of its identification. The consideration is based on the model of the plate of a finite size with an uniformly moving crack.
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