ABSTRACT Through a thorough investigation on the history education in the Imperial University of Peking from 1898 to 1911, this paper attempts to highlight the following findings. 1) The disciplinization of history education and the transformation of traditional historiography were concurrently incepted in the late Qing period. The Imperial University of Peking served as a pivotal platform for the realization of this synchronous process. 2) History instructors and students of this university can be regarded as initial participants in the new school system, as well as pioneering practitioners of the New History. 3) Zhongti xiyong, as the fundamental tenet of this university, in actual practice, was utilized as a slogan for justifying the introduction of Western learning. 4) Japan exerted tremendous influence on the history education at this university through sending history instructors and “re-exporting” new historical methods to China. 5) During the period discussed, there were in total twenty history instructors at this university. Their qualifications were commendable. 6) Regulations concerning history curriculum design, instruction and examination of the university assumed the task of alleviating the political and economic ordeals of China. Nonetheless, as with other reforms in the late Qing era, the government’s reformation efforts in this university could not rescue it from the predicament of “negative repercussions”.
Cite this paper
Li, L. (2012). Disciplinization of History Education in Modern China: A Study of History Education in the Imperial University of Peking (1898-1911). Creative Education, 3, 565-580. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.34084.
 Bastid, M. (1998). Jingshidaxuetang de kexue jiaoyu (Science education at the Imperial University of Peking). Lishi yanjiu (Historical Research), 5, 47-55.
 Beijingdaxue (Peking University), Zhongguo diyi lishi danganguan (The First Historical Archives of China) (Eds.) (2001). Jingshidaxuetang dangan xuanbian (Selected archives of the Imperial University of Peking). Beijing: Beijingdaxue chubanshe (Peking University Press).
 Beijing Daxuetang (Imperial University of Peking) (1903). Beijingdaxuetang tongxuelu (Records of students in the Imperial University of Peking). Beijing: Jinhe yinziguan.
 Beijingdaxue xiaoshi yanjiushi (Research Office on University History of Peking University) (Ed.) (1993). Beijingdaxue shiliao, diyijuan, 1898-1911 (Historical materials of Peking University, vol. one, 1898- 1911). Beijing: Beijingdaxue chubanshe.
 Cai Y. P. (1995). Wo zai Beijingdaxue de jingli (My experience at the Peking University). In S. P. Gao (Ed.), Caiyuanpei quanji (The complete works of Cai Yuanpei) (Vol. 3, pp. 592-600). Taipei: Jingxiu Pess.
 Chen, C. (Ed.) (1978). Jingshiyixueguan xiaoyoulu (Records of alumni of the Capital School of Translation). Taipei: Wenhai Press
 Chen F. C. (1995). Jingshidaxuetang Zhongguoshi jiangyi (Lecture notes on Chinese history at the Imperial University of Peking). In D. F. Chen (Ed.), Chen Fuchen ji (Collected works of Chen Fuchen) (Vol. 2, pp. 675-713). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company.
 Elman, B. A. (2000). A cultural history of civil examinations in late imperial China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
 Fung, E. S. K. (1980). The military dimension of the Chinese Revolution: The new army and its role in the revolution of 1911. Canberra: Australian National University Press.
 Gongzhong zhupi zouzhe (Imperially Reviewed Memorials), in the First Historical Archives of China. No.: 04-01-13-0447-001; 04-01-13- 0447-010; 04-01-38-0191-013.
 Gu, T. L. (Ed.) (1992). Qingdai zhuyuan jicheng (Collection of examination essays in the Qing Dynasty). Taipei: Chengwen Press.
 Guan, X. H. (2008). Shutu nengfou tonggui: Liting Keju hou de kaoshi yu xuancai (Can all roads lead to Rome? Examination and candidate selection after the end of the Imperial Civil Service Examination System). Zhongyangyanjiuyuan jindaishi yanjiusuo jikan (Bulletin of Institution of Modern History of Academia Sinica), 59, 1-28.
 Guangxu Jiachen enke huishi tongnian chilu (Records of graduates in the Grace Metropolitan Civil Examination in 1904). Provided by the National Library of China.
 Hao, P. (1998). Beijingdaxue chuangban shishi kaoyuan (Exploration on the historical facts of the establishment of the Peking University). Beijing: Beijing University Press.
 He B. S. (1969). Sanshiwu nian lai Zhongguo zhi daxue jiaoyu (College education in China over the past thirty-five years). In Y. P. Cai et al. (Ed.), Wanqing sanshiwu nian lai zhi Zhongguo jiaoyu (Chinese education during the past thirty-five years since the late Qing era) (pp. 53-131). Hong Kong: Longmen Book Company.
 Ho, P.-T. (1964). The ladder of success in imperial China: Aspects of social mobility, 1368-1911. New York: Wiley.
 Huang, J. J. (1992). Lun lishi yanjiu yu lishi jiaoxue zhi guanxi (On the relations of historical research and history education). In S. N. Wang, & Z. L. Zhang (Eds.), Zhonghuaminguo daxue yuanxiao Zhongguo lishi jiaoxue yantaohui lunwenji (The symposium on Teaching of Chinese History in the Colleges of Republic of China) (pp. 141-173). Taipei: Zhongguo lixhi xuehui, Guoli zhengzhi daxue lishixi (History Association of Republic of China), Guoli zhengzhi daxue lishixi (History Department of National Cheng-ch
 Huang, X. J. (1997). Zhongguo jindai shixue de shuangchong weiji: Shilun Xinshixue de dansheng jiqi suo mianlin de kunjing (The dual crises of modern Chinese historiography: Remarks on the birth of the “New History” and its predicament). Zhongguo wenhua yanjiusuo xuebao (Journal of Chinese Studies), 6, 263-285.
 Junjichu lufu Guangxu Xuantong chao (Ectype of memorials by the Grand Council during Guangxu and Xuantong’s Reign), in the First Historical Archives of China. No.: 03-7214009.
 Kageyama, M. (1983). Shinmo niokeru kyoiku kindaika katei to Nihonjin kyosho (Japanese instructors and the educational modernization in the late Qing period). In A. Hiroshi (Ed.), Nitchū kyōiku bunka kōryū to masatsu: senzen Nihon no zaika kyōiku jigyō (Cultural and educational communications and conflicts between Japan and China: Japanese education undertakings in China before the War) (pp. 5- 47). Tōkyō: Daiichi Shobō.
 Kojima, Y. (1989). Ryūnichi gakusei no Shingai Kakumei (The Revolution of 1911 by Chinese students in Japan). Tōkyō: Aoki Shoten.
 Li, J. M. (2007). Lishixuejia de jiyi he xiuyang (The art and training of historians). Shanghai: Sanlian shudian.
 Liang, Q. C. (1967). Xinshixue (The New History). In Yinbingshi wenji (Collected writings from the Ice-Drinker’s Studio) (vol. 3, pp. 95- 101). Taipei: Xinxing Book Company.
 Lin, X. Y. D. (2005). Peking University: Chinese Scholarship and Intellectuals, 1898-1937. Albany: State University of New York Press.
 Liu, L. X. (2002). Maixiang zhuanyehua zhitu: Xiandai Zhongguo shijia zige de renzheng yu pinghe (Toward professionalism: The evaluation and qualification of modern Chinese historians). Xinshixue (The New History), 13, 79-115.
 Liu, L. X. (2007). Xueshu yu zhidu: Xueketizhi yu xiandai Zhongguo shixue de jianli (Scholarship and institutions: disciplinary systems and the establishment of modern historiography in China). Beijing: Xinxing Press.
 Liu, S. P. (1997). Zhongguo lishi jiaokeshu (Textbooks for Chinese history). In Liu Shenshu yishu (Posthumous works of Liu Shipei) (vol. 2, pp. 2177-2272). Nanjing: Jiangsu guji chubanshe.
 Lund, R. C. (1957). The Imperial University of Peking. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington, DC: University of Washington.
 Luo, Z. T. (1997). Qingmo Minchu Jingxue de bianyuanhua yu shixue de zouxiang zhongxin (The marginalization of Confucian Classics and the centralization of history in the early twentieth century). Hanxue yanjiu (Chinese Studies), 15, 1-35.
 Marianne, B.-B. (1998). Jingshidaxuetang de kexue jiaoyu (Science education at the Imperial University of Peking). Lishi yanjiu (Historical Research), 5, 47-55.
 Nakamura, S. (2003). Fubu Yuzhiji yu Zhongguo (Hattori Unokichi and China). Mater’s Thesis, Beijing: Peking University.
 Sanetō, K. (1982). Zhongguoren liuxue Riben shi (A history of Chinese students in Japan). Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
 Takada, S. (Ed.) (1936). Hattori Sensei koki shukuga kinen ronbunshū (Collection of essays for the congratulation of Professor Hattori’s seventieth birthday). Tōkyō: Fuzanbō.
 Unokichi, H. Jingshidaxuetang wanguoshi jiangyi (Lectures notes on world history at the Imperial University of Peking). Special collection of the Library of Lingnan University (Hong Kong).
 Unokichi, H. Jingshidaxuetang xinlixue jiangyi (Lecture notes on psychology at the Imperial University of Peking). Special collection of the Library of Lingnan University (Hong Kong).
 Wang, X. R. (2000). Riben jiaoxi (Japanese teachers). Beijing: China Youth Publishing Group.
 Wang, Z. Y. Jingshidaxuetang jingxueke jiangyi (Lecture notes for Confucian Classics at the Imperial University of Peking). Special collection of the Library of Linnan University (Hong Kong).
 Wang, Z. Y. Jingshidaxuetang Zhongguo tongshi jiangyi (Lecture notes for general history of China), provided by the National Library of China.
 Wang, Z. Y. (2006). Moxijushi ziding nianpu (A chorological autobiography of Wang Zhouyao). In Photocopying office of Beijing Library (Ed.), Wanqing mingru nianpu (Chorological biographies of famous Confucians in the late Qing Dynasty) (vol. 17, pp. 1-136). Beijing: National Library of China Publishing House.
 Weston, T. B. (2004). The power of position: Beijing University, Intellectuals, and Chinese Political Culture, 1898-1929. Berkeley: University of California Press.
 Wu, X. X., & Liu, S. T. (Eds.) (1971). Guoli Beijingdaxue jiniankan (Memorial collection of the National Peking University). Taipei: Zhuanji wenxue chubanshe.
 Xia Z. Y. (1933). Zhongguo gudaishi (History of ancient China). Shanghai: The Commercial Press.
 Xuebu guanbao (Communiqué of the Board of Education), issue 52; issue 96.
 Xiao Z. Z. (2007). Houbu wenguan qunti yu wanqing zhengzhi (The group of “reserve” civil officials and the late Qing politics). Chengdu: Bashu shushe.
 Yamane, Y. (1994). Kindai Chūgoku no naka no Nihonjin (The Japanese in Modern China). Tōkyō: Kenbun Shuppan, 5-42.
 Zhang Heling. Jingshidaxuetang lunlixue jiangyi (Lecture notes of ethics at the Imperial University of Peking). Special collection of the Library of Lingnan University (Hong Kong).
 Zhang, Y. J. (2003). Jingshidaxuetang he jindai xifang jiaokeshu de yinjin (The Imperial University of Peking and the introduction of modern Western textbooks). Beijingdaxue xuebao (Journal of Peking University), 40, 137-145.
 Zhang, Z. D., Zhang, B. X., & Rong, Q. (2007). Zouding xuetang zhangcheng (Approved Memorials regarding Regulations for Schools). In Zhongguo Jindai jiaoyushi ziliao huibian: Xuezhi yanbian (Compendium of sources on the history of Chinese modern education: Changes of educational systems) (pp. 348-397). Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaoyu Chubanshe (Shanghai Education Press).
 Zhang, Z. L. (1955). The Chinese gentry, studies on their role in Nineteenth-century Chinese society. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
 Zhongguo diyi lishi danganguan (The First Historical Archives of China) (Ed.) Qingshi tudian (Collection of pictures on history of the Qing Dynasty). No.: 01-012-0284.
 Zhuang, J. F. (1970). Jingshidaxuetang (The Imperial University of Peking). Taipei: College of liberal arts of National Taiwan University.
 Zuo, Y. H. (2004). Cong Sibu zhixue dao qike zhixue: xueshu fenke yu jindai Zhongguo zhishi xitong zhi chuangjian (From the learning of Four Categories to the learning of seven subjects: Academic specialization and the establishment of knowledge system in modern China). Shanghai: SDX Joint Publishing Company.