CE  Vol.3 No.4 , August 2012
The Many Faces of Mentor-Mentee Relationships in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme
Author(s) Shosh Leshem*
Different schools of thoughts concerning the conceptualization of the role of the mentor point at different dimensions within the role. It is suggested that assumptions and beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning provide the rationale for the mentors’ approaches. The notion of idiosyncrasy of mentoring and the complexity of the mentor-mentee relationship has challenged the study of 15 pairs of student teachers and their mentors’ perceptions on the role of the mentor. The study also identifies types of relationships that transpire within pairs. The study was conducted in a pre-service teachers’ programme in a teacher education college in Israel. Findings indicate that there is no great dispute between mentors and mentees on the mentoring role. However, the types of relationships that have been identified highlight the com- plexities that mentorship entails and arouse critical questions concerning the benefits of the mentoring process. It has been concluded that mentoring is a dynamic non-linear process which requires mentors and mentees to adapt to contextual situations. It is suggested that more attention must be given to preparing students and mentors for their roles in the practicum.

Cite this paper
Leshem, S. (2012). The Many Faces of Mentor-Mentee Relationships in a Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme. Creative Education, 3, 413-421. doi: 10.4236/ce.2012.34065.
[1]   Arnold, E. (2006). Assessing the quality of mentoring: Sinking or learning to swim? ELT Journal, 60, 117-124. doi:10.1093/elt/cci098

[2]   Awaya, A., McEwan, H., Heyler, D., LInsky, S., Lum, D., & Wakukawa, P. (2003). Mentoring as a journey. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 45-56. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00093-8

[3]   Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Hansford, B. (1995). The crisis in teacher education: A European concern? London: Falmer Press.

[4]   Berliner, D. C. (2001). Learning about and learning from expertteachers, International. Journal of Educational Research, 35, 463-482. doi:10.1016/S0883-0355(02)00004-6

[5]   Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (1982). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

[6]   Bullough, J. R, & Draper, R. J. (2004). Mentoring and emotions. Journal of Education for Teaching, 30, 271-288. doi:10.1080/0260747042000309493

[7]   Cain, T. (2009). Mentoring trainee teachers: How can mentors use research? Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 17, 53-66. doi:10.1080/13611260802233498

[8]   Cochran-Smith, M. (1991). Reinventing student teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 42, 104-118. doi:10.1177/002248719104200204

[9]   Cochran-Smith, M., & Zeichner, K. (2006). Studying teacher education. Washington DC: American Educational Research Association.

[10]   Creswell, J. W., (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

[11]   Daloz, L. (1986). Effective teaching and mentoring. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[12]   Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking in the educative process. Chicago: Henry Regnery.

[13]   Eby, L.T., McManus, S. E., Simon, S. A., & Russell, J. E. (2000). The protégé’s perspective regarding negative mentoring experiences: The development of a taxonomy, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 1-21. doi:10.1006/jvbe.1999.1726

[14]   Elliott, B., & Calderhead, J. (1993). Mentoring for teacher development: Possibilities and caveats. In D. MdIntyre, H. Hagger, & M. Wilkin (Eds.), Mentoring: Perspectives on school-based teacher education. London: Kogan Page.

[15]   Fairbanks, C. M., Freedman, D., & Kahn, C. (2000). The role of effective mentors in learning to teach. Journal of Teacher Education, 51, 102-112. doi:10.1177/002248710005100204

[16]   Feiman-Nemser, S., Parker, M. B., & Zeichner, K. (1993). Are mentor teachers teacher educators? In D. McIntyre et al. (Eds.), Mentoring. London: Kogan Page.

[17]   Furlong, J. & Maynard, T. (1995). Mentoring student teachers: The growth of professional knowledge. London and New York: Routledge.

[18]   Graham, P. (1997). Tensions in the mentor teacher-student teacher relationship: Creating productive sites for learning within a high school English teacher education program. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, 513-527. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(96)00053-4

[19]   Handal, G., & Lauvas P. (1987). Promoting reflective teaching: Supervision in practice. Milton Keynes: Open University Education Enterprises, 9-19.

[20]   Handy, C. (1999). Understanding organizations (4th ed). Harmonds-worth: Penguin Books.

[21]   Harris, B. M. (1998). Paradigms and parameters of supervision in education. In G. R. Firth, & E. F. Pajak (Eds.), Handbook of Research on School Supervision. New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillan.

[22]   Hascher, T., Cocard, Y., & Moser, P. (2004). Forget about theory-practice is all? Student teachers’ learning in practicum. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 10, 623-637.

[23]   Hawkey, K. (1997). Roles, responsibilities and relationships in mentoring: A literature review and agenda for research, Journal of Teacher Education, 48, 325-335. doi:10.1177/0022487197048005002

[24]   Hawkins, M. R. (2005). Becoming a student: Identity work and academic literacies in early schooling. TESOL Quarterly, 39, 59-82. doi:10.2307/3588452

[25]   He, Y. (2010). Strength-based mentoring in pre-service teacher education: A literature review. Mentoring and Tutoring: Partnership in learning, 17, 263-275.

[26]   Hiebert, J., Gallimore, R., & Stigler, J. W. (2002). A knowledge base for the teaching profession: What would it look like and how can we get one? Educational Researcher, 31, 3-15. doi:10.3102/0013189X031005003

[27]   Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: What we know and what we don’t. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25, 207-216. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2008.09.001

[28]   Huberman, M. (1993). The lives of teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.

[29]   Iancu-Haddad D., & Oplatka, I. (2009). Mentoring novice teachers: Motives, process and outcomes from the mentor’s point of view. The New Educator, 5, 45-65. doi:10.1080/1547688X.2009.10399563

[30]   Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve Europeancountries presented from an English perspective. Researchin comparative and International Education, 4, 4-21.

[31]   Korthagen, F. & Lagerwerf, B. (1996). Reframing the relationship between teacher thinking and teacher behaviour: Levels of learning about teaching. Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, 2, 161-190.

[32]   Korth, B. B., Erickson, L., Hall, K. M., & Martin, G. (2006). Defining teacher educator through the eyes of classroom teachers. The Meeting of the National Network for Education. Cincinnati.

[33]   Kwan, T. & Tang, T. (1996). Learning experiences of overseas non-English speaking background students: A case study of an Australian university. New Horizon in Education, 39, 90-95.

[34]   Leshem, S. (2008). Novices and veterans journeying into real-world teaching: How a veteran learns from novices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 204-215. doi:10.1016/j.tate.2006.07.010

[35]   Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

[36]   Lopez-Real, F., & Kwan, T. (2005). Mentors’ perceptions of their own professional development during mentoring. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31, 15-24. doi:10.1080/02607470500043532

[37]   Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[38]   Maynard, T., & Furlong, J. (1993). Learning to teach and models of mentoring. In: D. McIntyre, H. Hagger, & M. Wilkin (Eds.), Mentoring: Perspectives on school-based teacher education. London: Kogan Page.

[39]   Maynard, T., & Furlong, J. (2001). The student teacher and the school community of practice: A consideration of “learning as participation”. Cambridge Journal of Education, 31, 39-52. doi:10.1080/03057640123915

[40]   O’Hear, A. (1988). Who Teaches the Teachers? London: Social Affairs Unit.

[41]   Orland-Barak, L., & Leshem, S. (2009). Observation in learning to teach: Forms of “seeing”. Teacher Education Quarterly, 36, 21-37.

[42]   Orland-Barak, L., & Yinon, H. (2005). Sometimes a novice and sometimes an expert: Mentors’ professional expertise as revealed through their stories of critical incidents. Oxford Review of Education, 31, 557-578.

[43]   Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

[44]   Rajuan, M., Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2007). The role of the cooperating teacher: Bridging the gap between the expectations of cooperating teachers and student teachers. Mentoring and Tutoring, 15, 223-242. doi:10.1080/13611260701201703

[45]   Rajuan, M., Beijaard, D., & Verloop, N. (2010). The match and mismatch between expectations of student teachers and cooperating teachers: Exploring different opportunities for learning to teach in the mentor prelateships. Research Papers in Education, 25, 201-223. doi:10.1080/02671520802578402

[46]   Russell, M. I., & Russell, J. A. (2011). Mentoring relationships: Cooperating teachers’ perspectives on mentoring student interns. The Professional Educator, 35.

[47]   Schon, D. (1987). Education the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

[48]   Tillema, H. (1995). Changing the professional knowledge and beliefs of teachers: A training study. Learning and Instruction, 5, 291-318. doi:10.1016/0959-4752(95)00020-8

[49]   Tillema, H., Smith, K., & Leshem, S. (2011). Dual roles conflicting purpose: A comparative study on perceptions on assessment in mentoring relations during practicum. European Journal of Teacher Education, 34, 139-159. doi:10.1080/02619768.2010.543672

[50]   Tomlinson, P. (1995). Understanding Mentoring. Buckingham: Open University Press.

[51]   Tauer, S. M. (1998). The mentor-protégé relationship and its impact on the experienced teacher. Teacher and Teacher Education, 14, 205-218. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(97)00036-X

[52]   Wang, J. (2001). Contexts of mentoring and opportunities for learning to teach: A comparative study of mentoring practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7, 51-73. doi:10.1016/S0742-051X(00)00038-X

[53]   Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

[54]   Wheatley, M. (1992). Leadership and the new science. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

[55]   Young, J. R., Bullough, R. V., Draper, R. J., Smith, L. K, & Erickson, L. B. (2005). Novice teacher growth and personal models of mentoring: Choosing compassion over enquiry. Mentoring and Tutoring, 13, 169-188. doi:10.1080/13611260500105477

[56]   Zeichner, K. M. (1993). Designing educative practicum experiences for prospective teachers. The International Conference on Teacher Education, Tel-Aviv, 27 June-1 July.

[57]   Zeichner, K. M. (1996). Designing educative practicum experiences. In K. Zeichner, S. Melnick, & M. L. Gomez (Eds.), Currents of reform in pre-service teacher education (pp. 215-234). New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.