ABSTRACT Although effective school-based alcohol prevention programs do exist, the overall efficacy of these programs has been compromised by implementation failure. The CLIMATE Schools: Alcohol Module was developed to overcome some of the obstacles to high fidelity program implementation. This paper details this development of the CLIMATE Schools: Alcohol Module. The development involved two stages, both of which were considered essential. The first stage, involved reviewing the literature to ensure the program was based on the most effecttive pedagogy and health promotion practice and the second stage involved collaborating with teachers, students and specialists in the area of alcohol and other drugs, to ensure these goals were realised. The final CLIMATE Schools: Alcohol Module consists of computer-driven harm minimisation program which is based on a social influence approach. The program consists of six lessons, each with two components. The first component involves students completing an interactive computer-based program, with the second consisting of a variety of individual, small group and class-based activities. This program was developed to provide an innovative new platform for the delivery of drug education and has proven to be both feasible and effective in the school environment. The success of this program is considered to be testament to this collaborative development approach.
Cite this paper
Vogl, L. , Teesson, M. , Newton, N. and Andrews, G. (2012) Developing a school-based drug prevention program to overcome barriers to effective program implementation: The CLIMATE schools: Alcohol module. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 410-422. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23059.
 McLaren, J. and Mattick, R.P. (2007) Cannabis in Australia: Use, supply, harms, and response. Prepared by National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre for the Drug Strategy Branch, Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra.
 Copeland, J. and Swift, W. (2009) Cannabis use disorder: Epidemiology and management. International Review of Psychiatry, 21, 96-103.
 Botvin, G.J. (2000) Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addictive Behaviors, 25, 887-97. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(00)00119-2
 Tobler, N.S. and Stratton, H.H. (1997) Effectiveness of School-based drug prevention programs: A meta-analysis of the research. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 18, 71-128. doi:10.1023/A:1024630205999
 White, D. and Pitts, M. (1998) Review: Educating young people about drugs: A systematic review. Addiction, 93, 1475-1487. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.931014754.x
 Tobler, N.S., Roona, M.R., Ochshorn, P., Marshall, D.G., Streke, A.V. and Stackpole, K.M. (2000) School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. Journal of Primary Prevention, 20, 275-336.
 Foxcroft, D.R. and Tsertsvadze, A. (2011) Universal school- based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009113
 Dusenbury, L., Brannigan, R., Falco, M. and Hansen, W. (2003) A review of research on fidelity of implementation: Implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 18, 237-256. doi:10.1093/her/18.2.237
 Ennett, S.T., Ringwalt, C.L., Thorne, J., Rohrbach, L.A., Vincus, A., Simons-Rudolph, A., et al. (2003) A comparison of current practice in school-based substance use prevention programs with meta-analysis findings. Prevention Science, 4, 1-14. doi:10.1023/A:1021777109369
 Hallfors, D.D. and Godette, D. (2002) Will the “princeples of effectiveness” improve prevention practice? Early findings from a diffusion study. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 17, 461-470.
 Botvin, G., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Tortu, S. and Botvin, E. (1990) Preventing adolescent drug abuse through a multimodal cognitive-behavioral approach: Results of a 3-year study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 58, 437-446. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.437
 Botvin, G., Griffin, K., Diaz, T. and Ifill-Williams, M. (2001) Preventing binge drinking during early adolescence: One- and two- year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 360-365. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.15.4.360
 Payne, A.A., Gottfredson, D.C. and Gottfredson, G.D. (2006) School predictors of the intensity of implementa- tion of school-based prevention programs: Results from a national study. Prevention Science, 7, 225-237.
 Dane, A.V. and Schneider, B.H. (1998) Program integrity in primary and early secondary prevention: Are imple- mentation effects out of control. Clinical Psychology Re- view, 18, 23-45. doi:10.1016/S0272-7358(97)00043-3
 Rohrbach, L., Graham, J. and Hansen, W. (1993) Diffu- sion of a school-based substance abuse prevention pro- gram: Pre-dictors of program implementation. Preventive Medicine, 22, 237-260. doi:10.1006/pmed.1993.1020
 Ringwalt, C., Vincus, A., Ennett, S., Johnson, R. and Rohrbach, L.A. (2004) Reasons for teachers’ adaptation of substance use prevention curricula in schools with non- white student populations. Prevention Science, 5, 61-67.
 Botvin, G., Baker, E., Dusenbury, L., Botvin, E. and Diaz, T. (1995) Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1106-1112. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520380042033
 McBride, N., Farringdon, F., Midford, R., Meuleners, L. and Phil-lips, M. (2004) Harm minimization in school drug education: Final results of the school health and alcohol harm reduction project (SHAHRP). Addiction, 99, 278-291. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00620.x
 Ringwalt, C., Ennett, S., Johnson, R., Rohrbach, L.A., Simons-Rudolph, A., Vincus, A., et al. (2003)Factors associated with fidelity to substance use prevention curriculum guides in the nation’s middle schools. Health Education & Behavior, 30, 375-391.
 Dusenbury, L. and Falco, M. (1995) Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula. Journal of School Health, 65, 420-425.
 Newman, I., Anderson, C. and Farrell, K. (1992) Role rehearsal and efficacy: Two 15 month evaluations of a ninth grade alcohol education programme. Journal of Drug Education, 22, 55-67.
 Dielman, T.E., Shope, J.T., Leech, S.L. and Butchart, A.T. (1989) Differential effectiveness of an Elementary School-based alcohol misuse prevention programme. Journal of Drug Education, 59, 255-263.
 Botvin, G., Baker, E., Botvin, E., Filazzola, A. and Millman, R. (1984) Prevention of alcohol misuse through the development of personal and social competence: A pilot study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 45, 550-552.
 Botvin, G., Epstein, J., Baker, E., Diaz, T. and Williams, M. (1997) School-based drug abuse prevention with innercity minority youth. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 6, 5-19. doi:10.1300/J029v06n01_02
 Griffin, K., Botvin, G., Nichols, T. and Doyle, M. (2003) Effectiveness of a uni-versal drug abuse prevention approach for youth at high risk for substance use initiation. Preventive Medicine, 36, 1-7.
 Ringwalt, C., Ennett, S.T., Vincus, A. and Simons-Ru- dolph, A. (2004) Students’ special needs and problems as reasons for the adaptation of substance abuse prevention curricula in the nation's middle schools. Prevention Sci- ence, 5, 197-206.
 Botvin, G., Baker, E., Filazzola, A. and Botvin, E. (1990) A cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention: One-year follow-up. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 47-63. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(90)90006-J
 Shope, J., Kloska, D., Dielman, T. and Maharg, R. (1994) Longitu-dinal evaluations of an enhanced alcohol misuse prevention study (AMPS) curriculum for grades six-eight, Journal of School Health, 64, 160-166.
 McBride, N., Farringdon, F., Muleners, L. and Midford, R. (2006) School health and alcohol harm reduction pro- ject: Details of intervention development and research procedures. W.A: National Drug Research Institute, Cur- tin University of Technology, Perth.
 Schinke, S. and Cole, K. (2003) Prevention program im- plementation. In: Sloboda, Z. and Bukoski W.J., Eds., Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory, Science and Practice. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 575-587.
 Barber, J.G. (1990) Computer-assisted drug prevention. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 7, 125-131.
 Gropper, M. (2002) Computer integrated drug prevention —Combining multi-media and social group work practices to teach inner city Israeli 6th graders how to say no to drugs. Journal of Technology in Human Services, 20, 49-65. doi:10.1300/J017v20n01_07
 Duncan, T.E., Duncan, S.C., Beauchamp, N., Wells, J. and Ary, D. (2000) Development and evaluation of an interactive CD-ROM refusal skills program to prevent youth substance use: “Refuse to use”. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 59-72.
 Schinke, S. and Schwinn, T. (2005) Gender-specific computer-based interventions for preventing drug abuse among girls. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31, 609-616. doi:10.1081/ADA-200068415
 Newton, N.C., Vogl, L.E., Teesson, M. and Andrews, G. (2009) CLIMATE schools: Alcohol module: Cross validation of a school-based prevention programme for alcohol misuse. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 201-207. doi:10.1080/00048670802653364
 Vogl, L., Teesson, M., Andrews, G., Bird, K., Steadman, B. and Dillon, P. (2009) A computerized harm minimization prevention program for alcohol misuse and related harms: Randomized controlled trial. Addiction, 104, 564- 575. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02510.x
 Cahill, H. (2006) Devising classroom drug education pro- grams. In: Midford, R. and Munro, G., Eds., Drug Education in Schools: Searching for the Silver Bullet. IP Communica-tions, Melbourne.
 Kaftarian, S., Robinson, E., Compton, W., Davis, B.W. and Valkow, N. (2004) Blending prevention research and practice in schools: Critical issues and suggestions. Prevention Science, 5, 1-3.
 Meyer, L. and Cahill, H. (2004) Principles for school drug education. Australian Government Department of Education Science and Training, Canberra.
 Faden, V.B. (2006) Epidemiology. In: Galanter, M., Ed., Alcohol Problems in Adolescence and Young Adults. Springer, New York.
 Moskowitz, J.M. (1989) The primary prevention of alcohol problems: A critical review of the research literature. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 50, 54-88.
 Midford, R., Munro, G., McBride, N., Snow, P. and Ladzinski, U. (2002) Principles that underpin effective school- based drug education. Journal of Drug Education, 32, 363-386. doi:10.2190/T66J-YDBX-J256-J8T9
 Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy (2006) National alcohol strategy 2006-2009: Towards safer drinking cultures. The Australian Government, Canberra.
 Midford, R., McBride, N. and Munro, G. (1998) Harm reduction in school drug education: Developing an Australian approach. Drug & Alcohol Review, 17, 319-327.
 Hawks, D., Scott, K. and McBride, N. (2002) Prevention of psychoactive substance use: A selected review of what works in the area of prevention. World Health Organiza- tion Mental Health: Evidence and Research Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence, Geneva.
 McBride, N. (2003) A systematic review of school drug education. Health Education Research, 18, 729-742.
 Berkowitz, M.W. and Begun, A. (2003) Designing prevention programs: The developmental perspective. In: Sloboda, Z., Bukoski, W.J., Eds., Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory, Science and Practice. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, 327-348.
 Roberts, G., McCall, D., Stevens, Lavigne, A., Anderson, J., Paglia, A., Bollenbach. S., et al. (2001) Preventing substance use problems among young people: A compendium of best practices. Office of Canada’s Drug Strategy, Health Canada, Ottawa.
 Marlatt, G. (1996) Harm reduction: Come as you are. Addictive Behaviors, 21, 779-788.
 National Health and Medical Research Council (2009) Australian guidelines: To reduce health risks from drink- ing alcohol. NHMRC, Canberra.
 National Health and Medical Research Council (2001) Australian alcohol guidelines: Health risks and benefits. NHMRC, Canber-ra.
 Dusenbury, L. and Falco, M. (1997) School-based drug abuse prevention strategies. In: Weissberg, R., Gullotta, T., Hampton, R., Ryan, B. and Adams, G., Eds., Enhancing Children’s Wellness. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks.
 Schinke, S., Schwinn, T., Di Noia, J. and Cole, K. (2004) Reducing the risks of alcohol use among urban youth: Three-year effects of a computer-based intervention with and without parent involvement. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 443-449.
 Gregor, M.A., Shope, J.T., Blow, F.C., Maio, R.F., Weber, J.E. and Nypaver, M.M. (2003) Feasibility of using an interactive laptop program in the emergency department to prevent alcohol misuse among adolescents. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 42, 276-284.
 White, V. and Hayman, J. (2006) Australian secondary school students’ use of alcohol in 2005. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra.
 Maggs, J. and Schulenberg, J. (1998) Reasons to drink and not to drink: Altering trajectories of drinking through an alcohol misuse prevention program. Applied Developmental Science, 2, 48-60.
 Shope, J., Elliot, M., Raghunathan, T. and Waller, P. (2001) Long-term fol-low-up of a high school alcohol misuse prevention program’s effect on students subsequent driving. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 403- 410.
 Commonwealth Department of Education Science and Training (2003) REDI for School Communities: A resilience approach to drug education. Commonwealth Department of Education Science and Training, Canberra.
 Botvin, G. (2000) Life skills training: middle school program. Princeton Health Press, Inc., Princeton.
 Sussman, S., Craig, S. and Moss, M.A. (2001) Project T.N.D: Project towards no drug use: Teachers manual. Los Angeles.
 National Drug Research Institute (2000) School health and alcohol harm reduction project (SHAHRP). 3rd Edition, NDRI, Canberra.
 Commonwealth Department of Education Science and Training (2003) Cannabis and consequences. Common- wealth Department of Education Science and Training, Canberra.
 Youth Research Centre (1995) Rethinking drinking you’re in control. University of Mel-bourne, Melbourne.
 McAllister, I. (2003) Alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults. Australian National University, Canberra.
 Hansen, W. and Graham, J. (1991) Preventing alcohol, marijuana, and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive Medicine, 20, 414-430.
 Midford, R. (2006) The Dame Elizabeth oration: Is Australia “fair dinkum” about drug education schools? The 5th International Conference on Drugs and Young People, Sydney, 24 May 2006.