Cite this paper
Kataoka, C. , Nozu, Y. , Kawahara, S. , Kuroiwa, H. , Kudo, M. , Sato, Y. , Kubo, M. and Watanabe, M. (2012) Relationships of youth risk behaviors with norm-consciousness and resilience among Japanese high school students. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine
, 306-311. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23044
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59, 1-142.
 Mirestean, N. and Irimie, S.I. (2010) Aspects of tobacco, alcohol and drugs consumption among students from Romania. 20th International Union for Health Promotion and Education World Conference on Health Promotion, Geneva, 11-15 July 2010.
 Health Promotion Research and Development Unit of the Medical Research Council, South Africa (2010) The 2nd South African National Youth Risk Behaviour Survey 2008.
 Park, S.-W. (2010) Surveillance systems for health risk behaviors and health levels among adolescents in Korea. Japanese Journal of School Health, 52, 116-124 (in Japanese).
 Nozu, Y., Watanabe, M., Watanabe, M., et al. (2006) Youth risk behavior among Japanese high school students: Results of the 2001 national survey. Japanese Journal of School Health, 48, 430-447 (in Japanese).
 Ichimura, K., Shimomura, Y. and Watanabe, M. (2001) Harmful substance abuse, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and perceived norms among junior and senior high school students. Japanese Journal of School Health, 43, 39-49 (in Japanese).
 Kataoka, C., Nozu, Y., Kubo, M., Sato, Y. and Watanabe, M. (2010) Relative influence of self-esteem and norm-consciousness on prevalence of youth risk behavior among Japanese high school students. School Health, 6, 6-11.
 Mita, M. (1966) Theory of value consciousness. Kobundo Publishers Inc., Tokyo (in Japanese).
 Masten, A.S., Best, K.M. and Garmezy, N. (1990) Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425-444.
 Mark, W.F. (2004) Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective. 2nd Edition, NASW Press, Washington DC.
 Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2011) Annual health, labour and welfare report 2009-2010 (in Japanese).
 Statistics Bureau (2010) Annual report on the labour force survey (in Japanese).
 Uehara, C., Nozu, Y., Kubo, M., Sato, Y. and Watanabe, M. (2008) Reliability and validity of norm-consciousness scale for youth risk behavior. Japanese Journal of School Health, 50, 159-165 (in Japanese).
 Oshio, A., Nakata, M., Kaneko, H. and Nagamine, S. (2002) Development and validation of an adolescent resilience scale. Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, 35, 57-65 (in Japanese).
 Dan, G. (2010) Highlights from the 2009 New Mexico high school youth risk and resiliency survey.
 Ritesh, M., William, J.M., Antronette, K.Y., Yao, L. and Minal, P. (2009) Resilience and patterns of health risk behaviors in California adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 48, 291-297. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.12.013
 Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2011) Annual reports on suicide prevention (in Japanese).