IJG  Vol.3 No.3 , July 2012
Geo-electrical Investigation of Mullusi Aquifer, Rutba, Iraq
Abstract: The geophysical study was performed east of Rutba town due to vertical electrical sounding in a net of forty points between Dhalaa and Dhabaa valleys. Geophysical electrical model applicated using Winsev6 program to determine the geo-electrical layers. Three geo-electrical layers were derived from geophysical survey. These layers are composed of four sediment types, such as clays, marls, marly carbonates, carbonates (dolomitic limestone), characterized by resistivity less than 20 ohm-m, 20 - 100 ohm-m, 100 - 350 ohm-m and more than 350 ohm-m, respectively. The thickness of the geo-electrical horizons are increased in Dhabaa Fault zone which characterized by multi karst shapes reflected as karst topography on the surface, which represents subsurface structural boundary for Mullusi aquifer, where this aquifer considered as main water supply for Rutba people in drinking water throughout 17 water wells located in Dhabaa site. Two empirical relation between Formation Factors (F) and Hydraulic Conductivity (K) obtained using linear and Polynomial regression techniques. The first equation of linear fit (F = 11.82 + 116.45 K; with a Correlation Coefficient of 0.94) represents the contribution between formation factor and hydraulic conductivity of a 2nd layer in Mullusi aquifer. The second equation of 3rd degree Polynomial Fit (F = 20.32 - 203.33 K + 1554.99 K2 -3127.30 K3; with a Correlation Coefficient of 0.75) represents the contribution between formation factor and hydraulic conductivity of a 3rd layer in Mullusi aquifer.
Cite this paper: nullA. Dulaymi, E. Al-Heety and B. Hussien, "Geo-electrical Investigation of Mullusi Aquifer, Rutba, Iraq," International Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 3 No. 3, 2012, pp. 549-564. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2012.33056.

[1]   F. Wenner, “A Method of Measuring of Earth Resistivity,” Bulletin of the US Bureau of Standards, Vol. 12, 1916, pp. 469-478.

[2]   C. Schlumberger, “Etude sur la Prospection ?lectrique du Sous-sol,” Gauthier, Villars, 1920.

[3]   L. M. Al’pin, “The Theory of Dipole Sounding,” Con- sultant Bureau, Vol. 1966, 1950, pp. 1-10.

[4]   A. Zohdy, “Application of Surface Geophysical (Elec- trical Methods to Groundwater Investigations),” Techni- ques of Water Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, 1976, pp. 5-55.

[5]   K. Choudhury, D. Saha and P. Chakraborty, “Geophi- sical Study for Saline Water Intrusion in a Coastal Alluvial Terrain,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2001, pp. 189-200. doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(01)00038-6

[6]   F. Sumanovac and M. Weisser, “Evaluation Resistivity and Seismic Methods for Hydrological Mapping in Karst Terrains,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 47, 2001, pp. 13-28. doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(01)00044-1

[7]   G. Kaya, “Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Using Electric and Electromagnetic Methods at an Open Waste-Disposal Site: A Case Study from Isparta, Turkey,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 40, 2001, pp. 725-731. doi:10.1007/s002540000232

[8]   R. Frohlich and D. Urish, “The Use of Geo-Electrics and Test Wells for the Assessment of Groundwater Quality of a Coastal Industrial Site,” Journal of Applied Geophysics, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2002, pp. 261-278.doi:10.1016/S0926-9851(02)00146-5

[9]   A. Ekwe, K. Onuoha and N. Onu, “Estimation of Aquifer Hydraulic Characteristics from Electrical Sounding Data: The Case of Middle Imo River Basin Aquifers, South- Eastern Nigeria:,” Journal of Spatial Hydrology, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2006, pp. 121-131.

[10]   M. Arshad, J. Cheema and S. Ahmed, “Determination of Lithology and Groundwater Quality Using Electrical Resistivity Survey,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2007, pp. 143-146.

[11]   G. Yadav, “Relating Hydraulic and Geo-Electric Para- meters of the Jayant Aquifer, India,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 167, No. 1, 1995, pp. 23-38.doi:10.1016/0022-1694(94)02637-Q

[12]   A. Ekwe, I. Nnodu, K., Ugwumbah and O. Onwuka, “Estimation of Aquifer Hydraulic Characteristics of Low Permeability Formation from Geosounding Data: A Case Study of Oduma Town, Enugu State,” Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2010, pp. 19-26.

[13]   B. Hussien, “Application of Environmental Isotopes Te- chnique in Groundwater Recharge within Mullusi Carbonate Aquifer-West Iraq,” Iraqi Journal of Desert Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010,pp. 100-110.

[14]   A. Al-Azzawi and R. Dawood, “Report on Detailed Geological Survey in North West of kilo-160, Rutba Area,”

[15]   M. Al-Mubarak, “Regional Geological Setting of the Central Part of the Iraqi Western Desert,” Iraqi Geological Journal, Vol. 29, 1996, pp. 64-83.

[16]   K. Al-Bassam, A. Al-Azzawi, R. Dawood and J. Al-Be- daiwi, “Subsurface Study of the Pre-Cretaceous Regional Unconformity in the Western Desert of Iraq,” Iraqi Geological Journal, Vol. 32/33, 2004, pp. 1-25.

[17]   D. Griffiths and R. King, “Applied Geophysics for Geologist and Gngineers,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1981.

[18]   P. Sharma, “Geophysical Method in Geology,” Elsevier Scientific Pub.Com., Amsterdam, 1976.

[19]   S. Mares, “Introduction to Applied Geophysics,” D-Re- dial Pub. Com., Dordrecht, 1984.

[20]   P. Frohlic, “Combined Geo-Electrical and Drill Hole In- vestigation for Detecting Fresh Water Aquifers in Northwestern Missouri,” Geophysics, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1974, pp. 340-351.

[21]   W. Telford, L. Geldart, R. Sheriff and D. Keys, “Applied Geophysics,” 2nd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992.

[22]   H. Johansan, “A Man/Computer Interpretation System for Resistivity Sounding over a Horizontally Stratified Earth,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 25, 1977, pp. 667-691. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.1977.tb01196.x

[23]   O. Koefoed, “Geosounding Principles,” Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam, 1979.

[24]   D. Parasnis, “Principles of Applied Geophysics,” Chapman and Hall, London, 1979.doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5814-2

[25]   U. Das and S. Verma, “Digital Linear Filter for Computing Type Curves for the Two-Electrode System of Resistivity Sounding,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1980, pp. 610-619.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.1980.tb01246.x

[26]   D. Gosh, “Inverse Filter Coefficients for Computation of Apparent Resistivity Standard Curves for Horizontally Stratified Earth,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1971, pp. 769-775. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.1971.tb00915.x

[27]   H. Flathe, “The Role of Geological Concept in Geo-Electrical Problems,” Geo-Exploration, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1976, pp. 195-206. doi:10.1016/0016-7142(76)90013-2

[28]   W. Kelly, “Geo-Electric Sounding for Estimating Aquifer Hydraulic Conductivity,” Groundwater, Vol. 15, No. 6, 1977, pp. 420-425. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1977.tb03189.x

[29]   O. Mazac, W. Kelly and I. Landa, “A Hydro Geophysical Model for Relations between Electrical and Hydraulic Properties of Aquifers,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 79, No. 3-4, 1985, pp. 1-19. doi:10.1016/0022-1694(85)90178-7

[30]   D. Huntley, “Relations between Permeability and Electrical Resistivity in Granular Aquifers,” Groundwater, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1986, pp. 466-474.doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1986.tb01025.x

[31]   O. Mazac, M. Cislerova and T. Vogel, “Application of Geophysical Methods in Describing Spatial Variability of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in the Zone of Aeration,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 103, No. 1-2, 1988, pp. 117-126. doi:10.1016/0022-1694(88)90009-1

[32]   F. Boerner, J. Schopper and A. Wller, “Evaluation of Transport and Storage Properties in the Soil and Ground- water Zone from Induced Polarization Measurements,” Geophysics, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1996, pp. 583-601.

[33]   N. Christensen and K. Sorensen, “Surface and Borehole Electric and Electromagnetic Methods for Hydroge- ological Investigations,” European Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, Vol. 31, 1998, pp. 75-90.

[34]   Y. Rubin and S. Hubbard, “Hydro-Geophysics,” Water Science and Technology Library 50, Springer, Dordrecht, 2005.