OJMP  Vol.1 No.3 , July 2012
Effect of a Four-Week Self-Administered Acupressure Intervention on Perceived Stress over the Past Month
Show more
Abstract: The use of relaxation techniques in daily life is an effective means for the self-management of stress. Acupressure is a traditional technique where pressure is applied to acupuncture points instead of puncturing the skin. Self-administered acupressure is a potential method for dealing with stress. The effect of self-administered acupressure on anxiety has been examined but whether it can reduce perceived stress over longer periods is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether a self-administered, four-week acupressure intervention would reduce perceived stress over the past month. Fifteen male and nine female college students (age, 28.9 ± 8.51 yr) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicine were randomly assigned to self-acupressure (AG) and control groups (CG). AG participants were instructed to conduct five sessions of acupressure in the morning, midday, and night. Each session included pressing six acupressure points on the neck (three points on the left and right side each) for five seconds. CG participants were asked to spend their daily life as usual. The outcome was the perceived stress level during the past month, which was assessed using a reliable and valid four-item scale. Perceived stress was measured at baseline, two weeks later, and after intervention. The stress level did not significantly differ between the two groups at baseline. In the AG, the stress level decreased from baseline to two weeks later and remained constant until the end of intervention. The stress level was significantly lower in the AG than in the CG only after intervention. These results provided initial evidence that self-administered acupressure reduces perceived stress over the past month.
Cite this paper: Y. Honda, A. Tsuda and S. Horiuchi, "Effect of a Four-Week Self-Administered Acupressure Intervention on Perceived Stress over the Past Month," Open Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2012, pp. 20-24. doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2012.13004.

[1]   M. S. Kopp, á. Skrabski, A. Székely, A. Stauder and R. Williams, “Chronic stress and social changes, socioeconomic determination of chronic stress,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1113, 2007, pp. 325-338. doi:10.1196/annals.1391.006

[2]   J. Watts and N. Robertson, “Burnout in University Teaching Staff: A Systematic Literature Review,” Educational Research, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2011, pp. 33-50. doi:10.1080/00131881.2011.552235

[3]   K. E. Evers, J. O. Prochaska, J. L. Johnson, L. M.. Mauriello, J. A. Padula and J. M. Prochaska, “A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Populationand Transtheoretical Model-Based Stress-Management intervention,” Health Psychology, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2006, pp. 521-529. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.25.4.521

[4]   M. L. Robbins, J. L. Fava, G. J. Norman, W. F. Velicer, C. A. Redding and D. A. Levesque, “Stage of Change for Stress Management in Three Samples,” Paper Presented at Nineteenth Annual Scientific Sessions of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, New Orleans, 1999.

[5]   S. Horiuchi, A. Tsuda, E. Kim, K.-S. Hong, Y.-S. Park and U. Kim, “Relationships between Stage of Change for Stress Management Behavior and Perceived Stress and Coping,” Japanese Psychological Research, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2010, pp. 291-297. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5884.2010.00444.x

[6]   S. Horiuchi, A. Tsuda, H. Kobayashi and J. M. Prochaska, “The Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of Pro-Change’s Decisional Balance Measure for Effective Stress Management (PDSM),” Japanese Psychological Research, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2012, pp. 128-136. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5884.2011.00490.x

[7]   J. S. Greenberg, “Comprehensive Stress Management (12th Edition),” McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 2010.

[8]   A. Fassoulaki, A. Paraskeva, K. Patris, T. Pourgiezi and G. Kostopanagiotou, “Pressure Applied on the Extra 1 Acupuncture Point Reduces Bispectral Index Values and Stress in Volunteers,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2003, pp. 885-890.

[9]   A. Kober, et al., “Auricular Acupressure as a Treatment for Anxiety in Prehospital Transport Settings,” Anesthesiology, Vol. 98, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1328-1332. doi:10.1097/00000542-200306000-00005

[10]   H. S. Kang, S. R. Sok and J. S. Kang, “Effects of Meridian Acupressure for Stroke Patients in Korea,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 18, No. 15, 2009, pp. 2145-2152.

[11]   F. Kashefi, M. Khajehei, A. R. Ashraf and P. Jafari, “The Efficacy of Acupressure at the Sanyinjiao Point in the Improvement of Women’s General Health,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 12, 2011, pp. 1141-1147. doi:10.1089/acm.2010.0589

[12]   H. M. Chen and C. H. Chen, “Effects of Acupressure at the Sanyinjiao Point on Primary Dysmenorrhoea,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2004, pp. 380387. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03236.x

[13]   R. Das, B. S. Nayak and B. Margaret, “Acupressure and Physical Stress among High School Students,” Holistic Nursing Practice, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2011, pp. 97-104.

[14]   L. Leung, T. Neufeld and S. Marin, “Effect of Self-Administered Auricular Acupressure on Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Study,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2012, p. 11. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-11

[15]   S. M. Zick, S. Alrawi, G. Merel, B. Burris, A. Sen, A. Litzinger and R. E. Harris, “Relaxation Acupressure Reduces Persistent Cancer-related Fatigue,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, Article ID 142913. doi:10.1155/2011/142913

[16]   C. L. Wong, K. Y. Lai and H. M. Tse, “Effects of SP6 Acupressure on Pain and Menstrual Distress in Young Women with Dysmenorrheal,” Complementary Therapy in Clinical Practice, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2010, pp. 64-69.

[17]   S. H. Maa, D. Gauthier and M. Turner, “Acupressure as an Adjunct to a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program,” Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1997, pp. 268-76. doi:10.1097/00008483-199707000-00008

[18]   K. C. Lee, et al., “Effectiveness of Acupressure on Pruritus and Lichenification Associated with Atopic Dermatitis: A Pilot Study,” Acupuncture Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2012, pp. 8-11. doi:10.1136/acupmed-2011-010088

[19]   S. Horiuchi, A. Tsuda, Y. Tanaka, J. Yajima and S. Tsuda, “Development of the Japanese version of the Rhode Island Stress and Coping Inventory: Examination of reliability and validity,” Behavioral Science Research, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2008, pp. 37-46 (in Japanese).

[20]   S. Shima, T. Shikano, T. Kitamura and M. Asai, “A New Self-report Depression Scale,” Psychiatry, Vol. 27, No. 6, 1985, pp. 717-723 (in Japanese).

[21]   S. B. Chang and E. M. Jun, “Effects of SP-6 Acupressure on Dysmenorrhea, Cortisol, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine in the College Students,” Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, Vol. 33, Vol. 7, 2003, pp. 1038-1046 (in Korean).

[22]   J. S. Greenberg, “A Study of the Effects of Stress on the Health of College Students: Implications for School Health Education,” Health Education Research, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1984, pp. 11-15.