JMMCE  Vol.10 No.9 , July 2011
Laboratory Studies on Phosphorus Removal from Nigeria’s Agbaja Iron Ore by Bacillus Subtilis
ABSTRACT
The investigation into whether or not Bacillus subtilis can remove phosphorus from the Nigerian Agbaja iron ore was carried out with careful monitoring of the population of the removing agent as well as pH of the system. 1.00mm/0.50mm, 0.50mm/0.25mm, and 0.25mm/0.125mm ore fractions obtained from sieving of the crushed iron ore in Shital Test kits, were used in sub-merged culture of nutrient broth (NB) medium for 10 weeks. B. subtilis which was part of the rich microflora found on the ore surface was cultivated in nutrient-rich media and later inoculated in sterilized 100ml of NB in 250ml conical flask and 1g of each of the equally sterilized ore fractions was added. At weekly intervals, a set of samples was removed, treated through series of chemical reactions to obtain ammonium phosphomolybdate precipitate which was back-titrated with 0.1 N-HCl to determine the amount of phosphorus left in samples and consequently, the amount removed. The laboratory investigations found out that B. subtilis has the capability to remove phosphorus from the Nigerian Agbaja iron ore, recording an impressive average of 65.73% P. Also found out was the systematic reduction in bacterial cells count in colony forming unit per mililitre, the initial load 3.4x105 cfu/ml increased to 4.8x107 cfu/ml from where it declined to 1.3x106 cfu/ml, which justified the pH trend observed during the process of cumulative phosphorus removal. The reduction in microbial activity may be attributed to antimicrobial components of the ore, pyrite, and other heavy metals which may have affected the phosphorus uptake from ore.

Cite this paper
C. Anyakwo and O. Obot, "Laboratory Studies on Phosphorus Removal from Nigeria’s Agbaja Iron Ore by Bacillus Subtilis," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 10 No. 9, 2011, pp. 817-825. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.109063.
References
[1]   The Iron Ore Market. Downloaded on 5 December,2010 from www.unctad.org/infocomm/iron/covmar08.htm

[2]   Uwadiale, G. G. O. O. (1989). Upgrading Nigerian Iron Ores. Journal of Minerals and Metallurgical Processing. AIME, pp.117-123.

[3]   Uwadiale, G.G.O.O. and Hall, A.J. (1985). Mineralogy of Ironstone from Agbaja Deposit Nigeria in Relation to Beneficiation. Trans. Inst. Minerals & Metallurgy. (Section B. Appl. Earth Science) 94(161-165).

[4]   Alafara, A. Baba., Adekola, F. A., Folashade, A. O. (2005). Quantitative Leaching of a Nigerian Ore in Hydrochloric Acid. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Mgt.Vol 9(3) pp.15-20.

[5]   Astier, J. E., Donzeau, M., and Uwadiale, G. G. O. O. (1989). The Lokoja Oolitic Ironstone Deposit: Possible Use in the Ajaokuta Iron and Steel Plant. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.25 Nos. (1&2).

[6]   Adeleye, D. R. (1974). A Fauna from the Ironstone of the Middle Valley. Journal of Mining and Geology 8(pp.45-48).

[7]   Adeleye, D. R. (1973). Origin of Ironstones, an Example from the Middle Niger Valley. Journal of Sed. Petrology, 43(3). (pp.709-727).

[8]   Kudrin, V., Steel Making, MIR Publishers, Moscow, 1985, pp 82-83.

[9]   Uwadiale, G. G. O. O. and Nwoke, M. A. U.; Beneficiation of Agbaja Iron Ore by Reduction Roasting- Magnetic Separation: Semi Pilot Plant Scale-up and Establishment of Residence Point of Phosphorus, National Steel Council, Metallurgical Research and Tests Division, Jos, Nigeria, June 1983.

[10]   Uwadiale, G.G.O.O. Beneficiation Studies of Agbaja Iron Ore, being text of a lecture delivered at a staff seminar, Department of chemistry, University of Benin, Nigeria, on May 1983.

[11]   Amadi, N. J., Odunaike, A. A and Marthur, G. P; Preliminary Bench Scale Beneficiation Studies with Three Lumps of Iron Ore Sample from Agbaja, Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Jos, Nigeria, 1982.

[12]   Jain, N., Sharma, D. (2004). Biohydrometallurgy for Nonsulfidic Minerals – a Review. Geomicrobiology Journal, 21:3, p.135 – 144.

[13]   Delvasto, P. et al, 2005. Exploring the possibilities of biological beneficiation of ironores: The phosphorus problem. In: Proceedings of the 15th Steelmaking Conference, 5th Ironmaking Conference & 1st Environment and Recycling Symposium IAS (CD-ROM). Argentinean Steelmaking Institute (IAS). San Nicolás, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 71-82.

[14]   Dephosphorisation of an Iron Ore by a Filamentous Fungus, 2007. Pedro Delvasto, Antonio Ballester, Jesus Angel Munos, Maria Luisa Blasquez, Felisa Gonzalez and Camino Garcia-Balboa. Proceedings…VII Meeting of the southern Hemisphere on Mineral Technology, Brazil.

[15]   Pradhan, N. et al., 2006, ‘‘Beneficiation of Iron Ore Slime using Aspergillus niger and Bacillus circulans’’, Bioresource Technology 97: 15, P. 1876-1879

[16]   Anyakwo, C. N., Obot, O. W., 2008, ‘‘Phosphorus Removal from Nigeria’s Agbaja Iron Ore by Aspergillus niger’’, International Research Journal in Engineering, Science & Technology, Vol. 5 No. 1, pp 54-58.

[17]   Holt, John G., Krieg, Noel R., Sneath, Peter H. A., Stanley, James T., and Williams, Stanley T., 1994, “Bergy’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology,’’ 9th Edition, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Maryland, USA. pp. 559,562.

[18]   Jain S. K., (1982). An Introduction to Metallurgical Analysis: Chemical and Instrumental, India, New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House.

[19]   Bacterial Growth, Wikipedia – downloaded 5 January, 2011 from www.http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_Growth

 
 
Top